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Nuclear Medicine

C. Belle Honors Chem. Fourth Period
by

Cammie Belle

on 16 December 2012

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Transcript of Nuclear Medicine

Used to diagnose and treat a wide variety of diseases:

Heart Disease
Cancers
Gallbladder Disease
Kidney Disorders
Thyroid Disorders
Neurological Disorders Radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) are unstable and decay through radiation. This radiation is produced from the atomic particles breaking down over time.

This time is measured in half-life’s. A half-life is the amount of time it takes for a given isotope to decrease to 50% of its original amount. Half-Life Alpha radiation: A heavy, very short-range particle that is actually an ejected helium nucleus. Travels only a short distance and cannot penetrate through skin or clothing.

Beta radiation: A light, short-range particle that is actually an ejected electron. Beta radiation may travel several feet and is moderately penetrating.

Gamma radiation: Best thought of like an X-ray. Does not have mass and because of this, it is able to penetrate tissue much deeper.
Almost always accompanies alpha and beta radiation.
-Iodine-131 emits both gamma rays and beta particles. 3 Types Of Radiation
Presented by,
Camara Belle Nuclear Medicine   Less intense areas, or "cold spots," indicate a smaller concentration of the tracer or sometimes poorly functioning organs. “Cold Spots” Areas of great intensity, called "hot spots," indicate where large amounts of the tracer have accumulated.
(Left)- “Hot Spot”
(Right)- Normal Findings “Hot Spots” Nuclear medicine (NM) involves using small amounts of radioisotopes, as tracers, to diagnose disease, or larger amounts for treatment.

These tracers are introduced into the body via injection, inhalation, by swallowing, or intravenously (IV). What is Nuclear Medicine? Iodine-131 (I-31) has a half-life of 8.07 days

How many grams of a 100g sample will remain after 8.07 days have passed? Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons and electrons, but different number of neutrons. Nuclear Chemistry is the study of the structure of atomic nuclei and the changes they undergo. Nuclear Chemistry Radioactive Decay Marie Curie termed the process through which forms of energy (such as uranium) give off rays is radioactivity.
-They even named a measurement after her, a millicurie (mCi)!!

The process in which energy is released as particles, or waves, by a radioactive source is called radiation. Discovery of Radioactivity Uses of Nuclear Medicine Timeline of Important Historic Events
A unique feature of NM is that the radiation source is internal and administered directly to the patient, whereas an X-ray passes a beam of radiation through the patient. "Can't I just get an X-ray?"  Computed tomography (CT) scan uses thin beams of X-rays to produce a series of images focused on a certain area of the body, such as the liver or chest. CT Scans A PET/CT scan is actually a combination of two scans: a CT scan and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan.

The combination of these two scans can help detect conditions that may not show up on a standard X-ray, or on a CT or PET scan alone.

Like a PET scan, in a PET/CT scan the patient will be given a radioactive tracer as part of the exam. PET/CT Scan First, a tracer is either injected into the bloodstream, inhaled, or swallowed.
The tracers then emit radiation in the form of a gamma ray.
A gamma camera, detects these gamma rays and through the use of computers, creates images.
The images give information about the structure and function of the body organ being imaged.
Finally, the nuclear medicine physician interprets the image to determine the cause of a given disease. How does the NM procedure work? NM is also used for treatment of hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, blood imbalances and even pain relief from certain bone cancers.
In treatment, the tracer goes directly to the organ being treated.
Through radioactive decay, the small amounts of radiotracer inside the body will lose its radioactivity over time. NM Treatment Process I-131 therapy is used to treat some causes of hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer and lymphoma. It may remain detectable for as long as three months after treatment.

The real danger is coming in contact with I-131. Any radioactive iodine entering any person other than patient will be absorbed by their thyroids where the beta particles can destroy healthy thyroid cells.

It is important for the patient to drink lots of water, so that the I-131 can be flushed out of the body. I-131 Treatment I-131 has a half-life of 8 days, this means that every 8 days it is now HALF of what is was.

For example, if you started with 100 mCi of I-131, in 8 days you would have 50mCi, after another 8 days you would have 25mCi, and so on.  
In most cases 11 half lives, or 88 days is enough to bring any contamination back to normal and safe background levels. Just to Clarify... CYC: Nuclear Chemistry/NM Quiz! 1. What name did Marie Curie give to the process by which materials give off rays capable of fogging photographic plates?

2. Is the following sentence true or false?
Gamma rays have no mass and no electrical charge.

3. What is the difference between a "hot spot" and a "cold spot"?

4. Why is it dangerous to have prolonged exposure to someone who has received I-131 therapy?

5. How does a CT scan, PET scan, and PET/CT scan compare to an image/map of the U.S? 1.Radioactivty
2.True
3. "Hot spots" indicate where large amounts of the tracer have accumulated. "Cold spots" indicate a smaller concentration of the tracer and sometimes poorly functioning organs.
4. Any radioactive iodine entering another person, othe than the patient, will be absorbed by their thyroids where the beta particles can destroy their healthy thyroid cells.

5. On the PET image, the physician is able to visualize how the body is functioning; likewise, a satellite weather image shows areas of intense weather activity but doesn’t illustrate geographic context.
- On the CT image, the physician is able to visualize the body’s anatomic structure, similar to how the map of the United States shows the outlines of the states.
- When both images are combined into a PET/CT image, the patient’s complete picture is revealed. CYC Nuclear Chemistry/CM Quiz Answers!!!
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