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Interior Plains

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Michelle Marcus

on 18 February 2013

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Transcript of Interior Plains

Geological Composition horizontal layers of sedimentary rock
compressed deposits of plants and animals have formed fossil fuels
thick layers of mineral deposits Physical Features bordered on the west and east by the Rocky Mountains and the Cordillera Mountains
mostly flat
results from glaciation: glacial deposits, fertile plains
home to many National Parks The Interior Plains Topographical Features covers much of central Canada
broad, flat lands
low hills
escarpments (cliffs)
low mountains
forests
wide river valleys
rare sand dunes Natural Resources
The majority of extracted resources are transported across Canada to other regions.
The majority of the interior plains is flat so goods and services are easily transported by pipelines, trucks, and planes
Overall the interior plains play an important role in Canada's Economic Development Climate winters: cold with average temperature of -10 degrees C
summers: hot & dry with average temperature 15 degrees C
one of the world’s most variable climates
total rainfall varies greatly: 250 - 700mm
climate expected to intensify: heat waves, storms, torrential rains, hail and floods, droughts, etc.
Taiga plains, Boreal plains & Prairies have varied climates Unifying Characteristics Capacity for Future Economic Activity & Prosperity agriculture is increasing:
recent drought in the US has benefited farmers in the Interior Plains
new crops other than wheat
however, eventually, climate change will cause problems for the Interior Plains
oil industries look towards expanding economy by exporting oil through pipelines (Enbridge & Keystone) - debated due to environmental concerns
forestry industry will die if not sustainable
mining industry will eventual die Variations Within The Interior Plains Current & Historical Economic Conditions 1780 - 1880: fur trade & bison hunting - led to the near elimination of bison
1885: completion of railway, land occupied and coal mining introduced
1900: sawmills in operation
early 1900s: Albertan oil and gas reserves discovered, hydroelectric plants built in Manitoba & Saskatchewan
1951 and 1991, forest harvests increased by 82%
Recent increase in agricultural activities: wheat, pasture and rangeland.
dependent on the service sector (employs 65% of the labour force) and the primary sector
First Nations use the forests as their home and workplace; they rely on hunting, trapping, and fishing as a source of food.
resources found in the Interior Plains are exported across Canada to other regions to support economy Biosphere Human Features Works Cited British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. The Canadian Interior Plains include: Water:
Boreal Forests: Oil & Gas:
Potash: copper, zinc, uranium & gold
flower shrubs & bushes in summer
lichens and mosses low on ground
cacti in driest places
grasses have deep roots - well-suited for climate
popular species: labrador tea, leatherleaf, gooseberry, blueberry, wheat, wild barley and cattail Major industries:
petroleum, coal, gas - oilsand deposits
agriculture in Prairies: wheat, canola, beans, carrots, potatoes (80% of Canada’s farmland/agricultural powerhouse; 37 million acres of land under cultivation)
mining: potash
hydroelectric power generation
fisheries
mining
forestry; pulp & paper
Population: 5.5 million
75% of population lives in cities
oilsands have a major impact of ecosystems and the environment Taiga Plains:
occupies southwestern corner of northwest territories and small additions into northern british columbia
contains wide flat plains, rolling terrain and sedimentary rock
Mackenzie River (Canada’s largest river) runs through
Core Taiga plains experience cooler temperatures than areas in the south
snow and ice last for 6-8 months
areas in north experience at least one day when sun never rises and one day when sun never sets
average northern temperature: -10 degrees celsius
average southern temperature: -1 degrees celsius Boreal plains:
northeastern BC, north-central Alberta, southern Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba.
flat terrain, soil deposits and forestry
home to many protected National Parks
short & warm summers; cold winters.
Average annual temperature: approximately 0 degrees.
low precipitation (300-600mm) as Rocky Mountains block rain from falling into plains. Prairies:
southern parts of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
contains temperate grasslands, savanas and shrublands biome
low-lying valley used for agriculture; grows most of Canada’s food
very dry - almost a desert; windy
short summers with little precipitation - irrigation & protection from frost is important
cold winters: average january -25 degrees Three main regions: Boreal Plains, Taiga Plains and Prairies agriculture fossil fuels flat, fertile plains forestry industry (evergreen & deciduous) grasslands (tallgrass prairie, mixed prairie & shortgrass) rivers & lakes: originated in the Rockies & flow east; result of rainfall, melting snow & glacial runoff) wetlands - wildlife habitat discovered in region in late 1940s
imperial oil first found in alberta town of Ludec in 1947
first pipeline to export natural gas from region was built during the same time
Alberta has since become Canada’s leading producer of oil and gas
previously fur trading routes
helps irrigate crops & for livestock
transportation for goods and services
act as areas of tourism and recreation
can be used for hydroelectricity evergreen & deciduous
many forest areas harvested for lumber industry or admired by tourists for tourist industry
coniferous in north; coniferous and deciduous in south
popular species: white birch, white spruce, black spruce, trembling aspen, balsam poplar and balsam fir endangered species - logging, clearcutting & hunting destroys ecosystems
popular species: black bear, deer, coyote, rodents, elk, moose, antelope, owls, vultures, hawks, river otters, lynx, badger, wolf, muskrat, squirrels, loon, Canadian goose, fish and reptiles Animals Plants Trees Sedimentary Rock. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Coal. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Spring Foliage On Trembling Aspen. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Labrador Tea Flower. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Deer. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Sand Dunes. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Agriculture. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Oil Sands Mining Operations. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. COAL. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Albian Sands (Shell. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Oil Processing Plant, Athabasca Oil Sands. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Burning Fossil Fuel, Composite Image. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Oil Sands Refinery, Canada. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Oil Industry Pollution. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Wetland Scenic. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Grasslands. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013.
discovered in Saskatchewan in 1943 in the process of drilling for oil
approximately 90 % found in Saskatchewan (largest deposits in the world)
used for fertilizers
Saskatchewan is one of world’s leading manufacturers of potash based fertilizers Farming In Manitoba. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Wheat Field In Central Saskatchewan Near Leader.. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Aerial Of Farming In Saskatchewan. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Field Cereal Saskatchewan Canada˜. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Athabasca Pulp Mill. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Boreal Forest. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Grasslands National Park Saskatchewan Canada. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Grasslands National Park. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Cumulonimbus On Mackenzie River Canada. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Farming In Manitoba. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. CHUB. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Potash. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. A Sweet Natural Gas Pipeling Rising From Underground To Access Surface Shutoff Valves On A Wooded Rural Pipeline Rightaway In Rural Alberta Canada. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. Saskatchewan Landing Provincial Park. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 17 Feb 2013. "Canadian Biodiversity: Ecozones: Prairies." Canadian Biodiversity Website. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
<http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/ecozones/prairies/prairies.htm>.

Cranny, Michael W. Horizons: Canada Moves West. Scarborough, Ont: Prentice Hall Ginn Canada, 1999. Print.

"Human Activities in the Boreal Plains Ecozone." ecozones.ca home page. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://ecozones.ca/english/zone/BorealP>

"Interior Plains." HRSBSTAFF Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2013. <http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/jmmoore/pages/SS%20interior_plains.htm>.

"Landforms and Climate of the Prairies Ecozone." ecozones.ca home page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2013. <http://ecozones.ca/english/zone/Prairies/la>.

"plain." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition.Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2013. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
<http://school.eb.com/eb/article-9060282>.

"Potash - The Canadian Encyclopedia."The Canadian Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/ar>.

"Prairies | Earth Sciences." Welcome to Natural Resources Canada | Bienvenue à Ressources naturelles Canada | Natural Resources Canada. N.p., n.d.
Web. 29 Jan. 2013. <http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth-sciences/climate-change/community-adaptation/642>.

Pratt, Laura. Plains. Calgary: Weigl, 2011. Print.

"The Plains." HRSBSTAFF Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2013. <http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/phillie/Intern>.

Watson, Galadriel. The Interior Plains. Calgary: Weigl Educational Publishers, 2006. Print. "Interior Plains - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., 13 Feb. 2013. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. Alyssa. The Interior Plains. N.d. online, online. 5Lregions. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. "Annual temperature." Environment Canada. Government Canada, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. "The Prairies." Canada in a North American Context. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. "Canada Mountains Rivers and Lakes." PlanetWare Travel Guide - Hotels, Attractions, Pictures, Maps & More. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2013. Michelle Marcus, Forbes Lui & Hema Chodha
Social Studies 10D
Ms. Bruce
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