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Gema Carrillo

on 1 February 2014

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Transcript of UNIT 1 GRAMMAR TKT

Grammatical Structures
Grammar rules also describe grammatical structures, i.e. the arrangement of words into patterns which have meaning. The rules for grammatical structures use grammatical terms to describe forms and uses.
Prefixes and suffixes
- Use grammar to describe how words are formed
- English use prefixes and suffixes to create new words.
- The prefixes and suffixes are added to base words to make new grammatical units such as tenses, parts of verbs, the plural nouns, etc.

group of letters added at the beginning of a word
e.g. un- , il- , pre- , dis-. new word: disappear

group of letter added at the end of a word.
-tion, -est, -ly, -able. new word: friendly

- Grammar includes a large number of terms, grammatical
structures, uses and forms.

Part of speech and functions
We can divide the parts of speech into further categories, e.g. countable and uncountable nouns and transitive and intransitive verbs.
Activities for grammar
Students: Gema Ariana Carrillo Nava and Laura Adriana Alvarez Ortega.
Transitive verbs
: The meaning is incomplete without a direct object, as in the following examples:
INCOMPLETE: The child broke. COMPLETE: The child broke the plate.

Intransitive verb,
cannot take a direct object: This plant has thrived on the south windowsill.

what are parts of speech, grammatical structures and word formation?
We can use grammar to describe parts of speech, grammatical structures and how words are formed.

There are nine parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, determiners, prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions and exclamations. A part of speech or word class describes the function a word phrase has in a sentence. This controls how the word or phrase can operate and combine grammatically with other words. For example, in English:

- a noun can act as the subject of a verb but an adjective cannot
e.g. the tall girl ran very fast but not tall ran very fast.

- an adverb can combine with an adjective but an adjective cannot combine with another adjective.
e.g. well organised, not good organised.

- a noun can combine with another noun
e.g. a car park.
What is grammar?
Grammar describes how we combine, organise and change words and parts of words
to make meaning. We use rules for this description.
the specific grammatical parts that make up the structure and the order they occur in.

the meaning that the structure is used to express.
Key concepts and the language teaching classroom

*Grammar rules describe the way language works.

*Teacher need to keep up to date with what parts of the language are changing and how.

*Grammar rules describe written language rather than spoken language.

*Speakers of a language can speak and write it well without consciously knowing any grammatical rules or terms.

*Learning some grammatical rules and terms makes language learning easier for some learners.

*Learning grammatical rules and structures doesn´t give learners enough help with learning how to communicate, which is the main purpose of language.
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