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Dark Matter

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Richie Nguyen

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Dark Matter

Dark Matter
Historical Background
The first person to theorize dark matter was scientist Fritz Zwicky studying at the California Institute of Technology in the early 1930s.

He noticed that there needed to be much more gravitational strength to keep stars clustered.

He believed that there was an invisible matter keeping the stars together.

He called it "dark matter."



MACHO
WIMP
Stands for Weakly Interactive Massive Particles.


Energy
Nuclear fusion
Currently the most abundant and efficient energy source in the universe.
Compared to other possible sources, this is least efficient way of converting mass into pure energy

Antimatter
Very efficient, but is not a viable source of energy in the universe.

Dark Matter
Dark Matter is the solution to this problem.
A viable source of energy, however is limited by current technology, as converting Dark Matter into energy is not possible at the moment.
Space Travel
Proposed idea of using Dark Matter "Jet Engine".

Dark matter spacecrafts could possibly fly at speeds greater than the speed of light.
Dark Matter 101
Dark matter. What is it?


Dark matter is a type of matter that accounts for a large part of the mass that appears to be missing from the universe.

Dark matter neither emits nor absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level.
Dark Matter and it's Applications
Space Travel
At the moment, the fastest moving spacecraft in space is Voyager 1, traveling at 17 km/s.

Chemical fuels currently used in rockets and spacecrafts are not suitable for long-distance space travel.

Proposed use of Dark Matter is not a feasible source of fuel for space travel.
Future Direction
With the current research in Dark Matter, there is a greater need for particle detection.

With further advances in this type of technology, the hunt for Dark Matter would benefit from better detection technology.

Detectors current in use for Dark Matter Detection.
Cryodetectors (Cryogenic Particle Detector)
Noble Liquid Detectors
Obstacle #1
These are the 3 major technological problems that researchers face
No apparatus can detect dark matter accurately (today)
Not enough supply of needed element for other research facilities (i.e. pure sodium iodide crystals used by DAMA cannot be sold to anyone else)
Due to other reactions in the environment, some technology can’t detect Dark matter properly.

Dark Matter: Significant Ideas
What people know about dark matter...
-
It is dark.
It is not in the form of stars and planets(NASA, n.d.).
-
It does not form into clouds.
Since matter are made up of baryons, scientist can detect baryonic clouds through observing the absorption of radiation that passes through them(NASA, n.d.).
-
It is not antimatter
. It doesn’t emit gamma rays that is usually seen when antimatter destroys matter (NASA, n.d.).
Dark Matter: Other Candidates
Dark Matter: Detection
Quark matter
Dark matter can be made up of quark matter since they can form inside very massive neutron stars. It adequate amount is produced, quark stars can be made. It would not emit light but apply a gravitational pull on normal matter (Moscowitz, 2014).
Large Hadron Collider
It is the use of particle accelerators that can produce WIMPs when protons collide together(Moscowitz, 2014).
Gamma rays
Dark matter particles can be revealed when dark matter particles collide with each other. As a result, gamma rays can be released from the collision and emitted from the center galaxies (Moscowitz, 2014).
Cryogenic Dark Matter Search
It is used to detect supersymmetric particles such as neutralinos (Moscowitz, 2014).
Large Underground Xenon
They believe that dark matter will interact with the nucleus or a xenon atom instead of electrons (Brown University, 2013).
Currently, there are 2 practical applications of Dark Matter:

Energy
Space Travel
Conclusion
The Large Hadron Collider, a massive particle detector in its cavern below France (Mezzanotti, 2007).

What is needed, is a new energy source, and the solution to this problem: Dark Matter.
Dark Matter is important
Although we can't see or touch it, Dark Matter is all around us.
There is still a lot we have to learn about Dark Matter.
Further research in this field of science will only uncover more mysteries in our universe.
Dark matter may not have instant impact in our everyday lives, but still holds potential further into the future
Obstacle #2
New theories by other researchers

MOND by Bekenstein and Milgrom suggest that acceleration in very weak gravitational fields are larger than predicted in Newton's Law

Nelson and Battaner claim that large cale magnetic fields cannot be ignored in the radical equation of motion
History/Findings
In 1950, Vera Rubin found that bodies orbiting around the outskirts of galaxies traveled at the same speed as the bodies near the center of a galaxy.

This discovery provided further evidence that dark matter exists, particularly in outskirts of galaxies.




Stands for Massive Astronomical Compact Halo Objects.
They are non-luminous baryonic matter found around the halos of galaxies.
MACHOs are thought to be primarily brown dwarf stars, neutron stars and black holes.
Possible WIMPs include electron-neutrinos, muons, taus, neutralinos, and other light supersymmetric particles (LSPs).
WIMPs are made of non-baryonic matter.
Marian Lynn de Leon, Richie Nguyen, Aljon Noay, Kenny Quach
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