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Radish

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Mark Wolf

on 11 May 2014

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Transcript of Radish

Series of genes that tell where to put the genes for different body parts.
Physiological Interactions
Ecological Interactions
Evolutionary History
Growth & Development Interactions
LAND PLANTS!
~500 million years ago
fossils*
-diverged from multicellular algae
-colonized massive new niche with help of another group of eukaryotes that were heterotrophs... the Fungi
Fossil....
Why do we care about the radishes for the "Interactions" unit?
Flowering Plants!
aka Angiosperm

160 million years ago diverged from conifer ancestors (the Gymnosperms)


Vascular Plants!
360 million years ago diverged from moss ancestors

Angiosperm Diversity
80 million years ago
Radiation from Artificial Selction
over 10,000 years of ag
Selection for
roots
~3.5 billion years ago
Photosynthesis: 2.7 billion years ago
1.8 billion years ago
Multicellularity: 1 billion years ago*
Pollinators
The biotic agent that moved pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization.

Examples:
Bees: Have pollen grains adhere to their bodies, but they also have specialized pollen-carrying structures



Communities
Competition: two or more species compete from a resource that is in short supply

Niche: all of an organism’s interaction in its environment. It’s position or function in a community.

Predation: One species, the predator, kills and eats the other, the prey. Predation has led to diverse adaptations, including mimicry.

Symbiosis: Individuals of two or more species live in close contact with each other.
Parasitism: parasites derives its nourishment from a second organism, its host, which is harmed.
Mutualism: Both species benefit from the interaction.
Commensalism: One species benefits from the interaction, while the other is unaffected by it.
Facilitation: species have positive effects on the survival and reproduction of other species without the intimate contact of a symbiosis.



Nutrient Cycles
Agriculture
Energy pyramid
Provide a key ecosystem service vital to the maintenance of both wild and agricultural plant communities.

Properties that emerge from interaction
Herbivory
Herbivores are important as they are the first link in connecting the energy locked within plants to the vast number of animals within ecosystems.
*Herbivory is important in determining the population abundance and dynamics of individual plant species as herbivores often eat or kill whole plants or affect how much a plant can reproduce.

Eats parts of a plant or alga. Plants have various chemical and mechanical defenses against herbivory, and herbivores have specialized adaptation for feeding.

Biotic and Abiotic
Biotic: Any living component that has an effect on another organism which includes the animals that consume the organism in consideration.
Recquire energy to work with and food to enable suitable growth.

Abiotic: A non-living chemical or physical factor in the environment, such as soil, pH, forest fire, etc.
The cycles of chemical elements in an ecosystem are known as nutrient cycles.
Primary consumer:
organisms that directly feed on producers.
Secondary consumer:
organisms that feed on primary consumers
Tertiary consumer:
eats all of the above.

the science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land,raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock;farming
Steps for development
Cell differentiation
Homeotic gene
Cells become Embryos
Cell Death
To make toes and fingers
Transcription Factors
Proteins that controls transcription of a gene.

Transcription factors turn genes on and off.
Germination
-Embryo starts to grow and germination begins.
-Fast stage, couple of months!
-The embryo absorbs moisture and nutrients from the food source.
-Must absorb enough for protective coat to open

Steps for Development of a Plant
Reproduction
Pollen is dispersed and lands in the stigma for double fertilization to occur and a fruit forms
C4 plants
Photoperiod and Photoperiodism
Photoperiod:
the relative length of night and day
Photoperiodism:
a plant's physiological response to the photoperiod.
Example: Flowering determined by the length of daylight and night
Short-day plant:

plants flower when daylight is less than a critical length.

They flower in in the late summer, fall, or early winter.
Long-day plant:
plants flower when daylight is increasing

They flower in the spring and early summer.

RADISH IS A LONG DAY PLANT
Day-neutral Plants:
They don’t flower in response to daylight changes.

They flower based on a stage of maturity or other aspects such as temperature

Most common one.

Some examples are rice and tomatoes.
In the 1940’s scientists discovered that a short-day plant is actually a long-night plant since it’s completely dependent on a critical night length.

Evidence: The cocklebur plant needs a critical night length of 8 hours in order to flower. If it’s not in continuous darkness and it’s punctuated by light for a few minutes it won’t flower.
Mesophyll - carbon fixation
-Carried out by an enzyme (PEP carboxylase)which can fix carbon when Rubisco cannot in hot and dry environment.
Bundle Sheath- Calvin Cycle
-Chloroplasts present in these cells function the cycle.
Characteristics of Angiosperms
Flowers
After carbon fixation in mesophyll, sugar is produced in the Calvin cycle in bundle sheath cell to vascular tissue.
Angiosperms structure specialized for sexual reproduction.
Other animals transfer pollen from a flower to the female sex organs of another
Fruits
Photosynthesis
They consist of mature ovary, although it can include other flower parts as well.
As seeds develop from ovules, after fertilization the wall of the ovaries thickens.
Angiosperm life cycle
Plants, invertebrates and vertebrates have multiple, nonspecific immune responses
Plants can have secondary metabolites called allelochemicals that allow them to protect themselves from possible threats
How roots develop
Thylakoids:
light reaction
Stroma:
Calvin Cycle
Interaction between Organ and Organ system
A plant has two organ systems: 1) the shoot system, and 2) the root system.
The shoot system is above ground and includes the organs such as leaves, buds, stems, flowers, and fruits.

The root system includes those parts of the plant below ground, such as the roots, tubers, and rhizomes.
Thylakoid
Its membrane allows the concentration of hydrogen across the outer and inner part of the thylakoid to create ATP to be used as energy and NADPH to pass on to the Calvin Cycle.
Both shoot and root system play important roles in moving water through the plants.

Water enters the root hairs and travels to the xylem.
Once the water is in the xylem, it is moved against gravity up the stem to the leaves through transpiration. Transpiration is the evaporation of water through the stomata in the leaves. As each water molecule evaporates, it creates a transpiration pull on the adjacent water molecules, which pulls the water up the xylem to the leaves. Once the water reaches the leaf, the transpiration pull is enough to move the water from the xylem into the ground tissue. The leaves lose a high proportion of the water because of evaporation through the stomata. This evaporation maintains the transpiration pull, and water is continuously drawn up the stem.

Genotype generally remains constant from one environment to another.
Spontaneous reactions may occur causing change.
However same genotypes can produce different phenotypes when subjected to different environments.

The organs of a plant also work together to ensure that the plant survives changes in the environment.

Environmental factors
influence the expression of the genotype in a organism

More of those environmental factors
influence the expression of the genotype in a organism
Phenotype usually represents consequences of genotypes.
Plants can detect and respond to specific environmental signals.
This signals affect environmental pathways.
Confer a wide rage of variety over time.

Some specialized cells record changes in the exposure to light. When the length of daylight increases, chemical messages are delivered to tissues to stimulate the production of a flower. Sometimes, in times of drought and excessive heat, a plant may decrease its production of leaves.

Evo-Devo of Flower Origins
Flower evolved from pollen producing (male) reproductive structure of a gymnosperm ancestor, therefore flower development genes are related to pollen producing gymnosperm genes.
Evolutionary Links between Angiosperms and Animals
Animals created selective pressure that favored plants that kept their spores off the ground
As flowers and fruits evolved in angiosperms, animals developed a mutual relationship by spreading pollen
Morphogensis
Morphogenesis is the development of body from and organization in plants
Each cell in the plant body contains the same set of genes.

Different patterns of gene expression among cells cause the cellular differentiation that creates diversity of cell parts
Cell Division and Cell Expansion
Cell expansion account for the actual increase in plant mass. Cell division creates the potential for growth.
Plant Hormones
Plant hormones help coordinate growth by releasing chemical signals into different parts of the plant.
Phototropism and Tropism
Subcellular components
Carbon Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
Epidermis adheres to humid soil particles to promote efficiency by absorbing water then it travels to the root cortex, providing more surface area thus promoting efficiency.

The vascular system in plant promotes efficiency
by being the route (xylem, root cortex) where
nutrients and water travels upward because
cellulose and water are polar they attracted making water go up.


Hydrogen bonds in water makes an interminable chain
that goes around all the plant

The stomata in the leafs cause a maze of ir spaces to form in days that are drier the water potential outside is lower causing the higher water potential of the vapor to leave the leaf.
Phloem sap travels from the leaves to the rest of the tree
delivering sugar created in the leaves and stored in roots.

Chloroplasts and mitochondria use materials to get energy through cellular respiration and photosynthesis
Alma V
Alma V
In all eukaryotes, cell polarity, endocytosis and protein degradation (only applies to hormones that are made up of peptide bonds) is responsible for the binding and use of hormones
The fruit of the radish is a bud which has little seeds on it.
Production of a flower with both male and female reproductive structures that the plant needs to reproduce.
The hormones themselves do not cause the changes in
the organism, they are due to the
interactions between the signal pathways.
The activation of the signals stimulates cell proliferation, cell expansion and cell endoreduplication. Hormones are distributed via diffusion between cells in plants.
Auxin is a hormone that is central to a plant’s growth and development.

Analogy
Seeds
Contains:

-An Embryo

-A food source

-Protective Coat
To determine the defensive capacity of a higher plant's allelochemicals, demonstrate their toxicity toward one or more insects that are standard reference species in evaluating biological toxicity.
Incorporate the allelochemicals into an artificial diet for the insect.
J. M. Erickson, a student of Feeny's, and Feeny, on the black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes, modified this method. Instead of creating an artificial diet, they introduced the allelochemical into a plant that is part of the butterflies' diet.
Same types of cells have the same activated genes and therefore work together to make up an organ.

Adult P. polyxenes avoid plants of the group Cruciferae (the mustards) which produce sinigrin, a compound that contains allylisothiocyanate (toxic).
On the other hand, the butterflies eat the Umbelliferae (celery group)
Erickson and Feeny grew P. polyxenes larvae on a diet of celery leaves that had been induced to take up sinigrin. The larvae fed, and their growth was inhibited.
Celery containing a level of sinigrin equivalent to the level found in cruciferous vegetation was lethal to all the tested larvae.
These experiments demonstrated that toxic allelochemicals could render a host plant unacceptable to a pest.
-Once the protective coat opens and a tiny root will grow

-This will try to reach the soil, in order to anchor the plant.

-This can last a week or several days, which is faster than most of the angiosperms.

-In charge of absorbing water and nutrients, anchoring plant to soil, store food and nutrients, vegetative reproduction.
Like LEGOs,
same colored legos making up different shapes.
Step 1. The plant anchors
The seeds will disperse and process repeats.
Growth Stimuli
-Soil Fertilizers due to their organic compounds

-Water and Sunlight

-Distilled water lack necessary nutrients for plant so doesn't help
2. The cotyledons the food source will start growing upward.
Herbivores: primary consumers :: primary carnivores: secondary consumers
3. The terminal bud contains the developing leaves.
4. The shoot system (leaves & cotyledons) will grow towards the sunlight (phototropism).
5. Cotyledons rot and leaves appear once the roots appear and plant finds sunlight
10 % RULE!
last 10,000 years
Symbiosis
with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (phosphate)
with Trehalose producing bacteria
with nitrogen fixing bacteria

quack grass and fungus
Full transcript