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Salvador Dalí: From Surrealism to Critical Paranoid Method (
Transcript of Salvador Dalí: From Surrealism to Critical Paranoid Method (
From Surrealism to Critical Paranoid Method
Salvador Dalí is one of the greatest Spanish painters in the history of Modernism.
Salvador Dalí Biography
Dalí was born as Salvador Doménec Felip Jacint Dalí i Domenech on May 11, 1904 in the small agricultural town of Figueres, Spain.
Died on January 23, 1989 in Figueres from heart failure with respiratory complications.
Figueres is in the foothills of the Pyrenees, only 16 miles from the French border in the Catalonia, province of Gerona.
Dali collaborated with surrealist film director Luis Bunuel on a variety of short films, An Andalusian Dog in 1929, and The Golden Age in 1930. The films ranged from unsettling scenes of cutting an eyeball with a razorblade, and a comedy about the insanities of modern life, the hypocrisy of the sexual scandals of bourgeois society and the value of the Roman Catholic Church.
Clashing view’s of the artists led to Dali’s expulsion from the Surrealist group. The painting of The Enigma of William Tell (1934) showing the face of Lenin was against what the Surrealist’s stood for. Dali expressed “I myself am Surrealism” later on Breton coined the Anagram “Avida Dollars” in 1939 to Dali, meaning that he is “Greedy for Dollars.”
Bonwitt Teller Incident
Dali does a window display at the Bonwit Teller and it is taken off as soon as it is viewed by the women who shop at the store are out raged.
Dali saw his displayed had been changed threw an ultimatum which broke the Tellers window and got Dali arrested.
Dalí attended the "Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando" in Madrid and lived at the "Residencia de Estudiantes", where he become friends with a group of intellectual and artistic personalities of the future: Luis Buñuel, Federico García Lorca, Pedro Garfias, Eugenio Montes and Pepín Bello.
Dalí had found his own style and his private language of expression "Surrealism"
The Persistence of Memory (1931)
The painting was presented as a group exhibition:
"Newer Super Realism"
by the French Gallery Pierre Cole in 1931
Julien Levy and Chick Austin played a huge role as promoters of Dali in America.
Julien Levy purchased Dali's The Persistance of Memory, painting.
Federico Garcia Lorca
Dali met his muse Gala in 1929 when she and her husband of the time, Paul Eluard, came to visit him in Cadeques. From then on, after separation from her marriage and her undoubted interest in Dali, Gala never left his side. They married in 1934.
An Andalusian Dog
Dali's other run in with film production
In 1929 Dalí travelled again to Paris and, through Joan Miró, came into contact with the group of surrealists headed by André Breton.
Salvador Dali wrote a dream sequence for Alfred Hitchcock's movie
. Hitchcock thought Dali's work consisted of architectural sharpness. After the movie was finally edited and cut, critics claimed that Dali's part was snipped into a very small part in the actual film. Walt Disney then called on Salvador Dali to help him work on his movie
, since critics said he was scared to live outside of the box. The project was pulled after eight months of production but 58 years later Walt's nephew Roy Disney finished the animation in 2003. Roy and a group of producers finished the film the way they thought Dali would have wanted it. Years later, Salvador Dali linked up with Harpo Marx and they became friends. Harpo was a member of the Groucho Marx brothers who were known for their comedy films. Dali wrote many scenarios for the Marx brothers bur none of them were considered because they were too crazy or unrealistic. He continued to press the brothers about a film until they finally agreed to produce a film called
Giraffes on Horseback
. Those plans were also dropped because the ideas where strange and unrealistic. Dali said the giraffes should be lit on fire.
Sigmund Freud, the father psychology
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the father of abnormal psychology and established the psychoanalytical point of view. He studied the dreams of patients in order to understand their personalities, desires, fears, and obsessions.
Andre Breton trained in medicine and psychiatry and served in a neurological hospital during World War I where he used Freudian analysis on shell-shocked soldiers. By 1924, Breton, still drawn to the vagaries of the human mind, published the “Manifesto of Surrealism” in which he interpreted Freud’s theory that the human mind is a battleground where the irrational forces of the unconscious mind wage a constant war against the rational, orderly, and oppressive forces of the conscious mind.
The Paranoid Critical Method (1927)
Shirley Temple, The Youngest,
Most Sacred Child of the Cinema in Her Time (1939)
The Birth of Liquid Desires (1932)
Freud by Dali (1939)