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Transcript of Mexico-OCT2012
Cultural tourism depends on the preserved evidence of cultural achievement and evolution, as well as on the establishment of a sustainable tourist experience around that preserved evidence (World Bank, 2006).
In addition to built cultural heritage, cultural industries such as music, visual arts, festivals, handicrafts enrich the cultural tourism experience, which is what attracts visitors.
The World Bank has recognized the value and economic potential of cultural and natural heritage assets of nations, and our lending and technical assistance program is constantly growing.
World Bank projects have demonstrated that cultural heritage conservation is most beneficial to the local community when combined with sustainable cultural tourism. ANTHONY GAD BIGIO
Cultural Heritage Coordinator
THE WORLD BANK
Cultural Heritage Specialist CULTURAL TOURISM Integrated Heritage Site Development: support, on a competitive basis, for sub-project proposals made by oblasts and cultural institutions.
Protection of Museum Assets: including improvement of collection management and museum security practices.
Project Management, Monitoring and Evaluation. The World Bank Integrates Heritage Conservation and Cultural Tourism Cultural Heritage and Creative Industries are equally crucial for Cultural Tourism
The key challenge for tourism as an economic sector is that market forces cannot equitably distribute benefits and costs (Butler, 1993). Cultural tourism strategies should be combined with strategies to involve local communities around the cultural sites.
Governments must focus on creating jobs, engaging the private sector, and creating opportunities for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), especially with regards to developing new tourism products, crafts and marketing.
Governments should strive to redistribute the profits of the private sector-led industry, maximize their tax revenues from an expanded tourism economy, whether from general consumption and corporate taxes associated with tourism, or from taxes specifically targeted at tourists and the tourism sector (World Bank 2006). Cultural Tourism, an Effective Tool for
Local and Equitable Economic Development " Movements of persons for essentially cultural motivations such as study tours, performing arts and cultural tours, travel to festivals and other cultural events, visits to sites and monuments, travel to study nature, folklore or art, and pilgrimages ". CULTURAL TOURISM Mexico City Cathedral and Church of Santo Domingo The Case of Istanbul Promoting Cultural Tourism Until 1980 Turkey's tourism industry was seasonal and sea-sun-sand based. In the 1990s, the tourism industry started to explore new approaches to attract visitors throughout the whole year.
The 1996-2000 Development Plan laid out new alternative types of tourism by considering changing demands. The priority of the 2010 tourism vision was to emphasize the cultural variety and richness of Turkey in addition to developing policies to ensure a broader offer of tourism opportunities.
Today, Turkish cities are more important as tourism destinations than the coastal resorts. Istanbul, with its rich cultural heritage and its unique place between Europe and Asia, has become the prime destination. Tourism arrivals in Istanbul have increased from 2 million in 1995 to over 7 million in 2008.
40 % of international tourists visit museums and other historic sites, and the cultural landscapes of Istanbul (including cultural and natural heritage, tangible and intangible) are the major attraction. Its Role in Local Economic Development Russian Federation Preservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage Project To spur economic and social development, the Russian Government aims to support heritage conservation in four oblasts, which have witnessed events that are seminal to the creation of Russian national identity. Total Project Cost: US$ 250 M
Total Loan Amount: US$ 100 M
Approved December 2010 Project Components Key conservation works;
Improved signage, interpretation and displays;
Urban redevelopment and improvements for water supply and wastewater infrastructure;
Conservation of historic houses; and
Capacity building China Shandong Confucius and Mencius Cultural Heritage Conservation and Development Project Assisting Shandong Province to enhance cultural heritage conservation and tourism development in Qufu and Zouchen (the hometowns of Confucius and Mencius, his disciple, respectively). Total Project Cost: US$ 130.78
Total Loan Amount: US$ 50.0 M
Approved May 2011 Project Components Destination Development: rehabilitation and enhancement of basic infrastructure in key historic sites, visitor services enhancement and tourism product development.
Market Development: promotion and marketing activities positioning and marketing, and a demand-driven linkages program utilizing a matching grant scheme and providing support to communities.
Institutional Development and Capacity Building, aimed to build capacity in sector management through supporting existing and new institutions.
Implementation Support and Results Monitoring Ethiopia Sustainable Tourism Development Project To enhance the quality and variety of tourism
products and services in targeted destinations so as to increase the volume of tourism, foreign
exchange earnings, and jobs. Total Project Cost: US$ 39.5 M
Total Loan Amount: US$ 35 M
Approved June 2009 Project Components
Upgrading of urban infrastructure in the cities of Telavi and Kvareli and the heritage village of Dartlo;
Restoration of the facades of 150 publicly and privately owned buildings with historic architecture;
Redevelopment of 11 cultural heritage sites
Provision of incentives to the private sector to invest in tourism in Kakheti; and
Improved management of tourist destinations and the development of two leisure travel clusters. Georgia Regional Development Project The government of Georgia aims to develop the local economy in the Kakheti region which was a key juncture on the Silk Road and has long been the heart of country’s ancient culture, history and economy. Total Project Cost: US$ 70 M
Total Loan Amount: US$ 60 M
Approved March 2012 Project Components WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION The World Bank has approved 177 operations totaling US$ 2.6 billion in cultural heritage and sustainable tourism across sectors and regions. Cultural Tourism is a Fast Growing Industry " Cultural Tourism as a form of tourism whose object is, amongst other aims, the discovery of monuments and sites. Cultural tourism encompasses all experiences absorbed by the visitor to a place that is beyond their own living environment. It also embraces “heritage” – a broad concept that covers natural, historic and cultural inheritance ". ICOMOS
International tourist arrivals will reach 1.6 billion by 2020. The growth rate of cultural tourism is faster than most other segments of the tourism industry
The World Tourism Organization estimates that cultural tourism accounts for 37 % of all trips worldwide (296m trips) and is a growing sector, increasing by 15 % per year, three times more than the average growth of tourism as a whole.
Heritage tourism in Europe increased 100 % 1970 -1991 (Association of Tourism and Leisure Education)
In 2004, over 10.6 million international visitors participated in cultural and heritage tourism activities in the US. World Heritage City of Hue, Vietnam World Bank Investments in Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Tourism, Based on Regions. Integrated development of archeological parks and sites and creation of an archeological tourism circuit by financing tourism infrastructure and participatory management.
Income generation opportunities training and incentives to foster income generation for populations in the project areas, particularly the very poor.
Institutional Development: tourism development plan; technical assistance and training for municipalities; marketing and promotion strategy; and a social communications strategy. Honduras Regional Development in the Copan Valley Project To achieve sustainable tourism development based on the cultural and natural patrimony of the Copan Valley and surrounding areas which will, as a result, create investment opportunities for the private sector, foster employment, and reduce poverty in one of the poorest regions of Honduras. Total Project Cost: US$ 13.35 M
Total Loan Amount: US$ 12 M
Approved April 2003 Project Components Increase in tourist population: the improved facilities particularly at the Archeological Park of Copán contributed to an increase of 457 percent in tourist inflows in the Western region between 2001 and 2007.
Improvement in the local economy: the average expenditures by tourists have increased from US$117 in 2004 to US$ 696.6 for the Western Zone in 2008 (250 percent).
Increase in municipal revenues: these revenues increased over 900% from 2004 to 2008.
Increase in per capita income: the annual growth rate of Copán’s per capita income was 8 percent compared to national rate of 4 percent. 70 percent of enterprises created through the project stated a monthly salary of US$ 291 for individuals in comparison to national average of US$ 131.
Jobs creation: the number of jobs created in the Western Zone increased by 15 percent. The number of local SMEs increased by 60 percent.
Improved local capacity for business management and tourism development: the Project organized 32 workshops and training modules in these areas, attended by 1,559 individuals participants. 40 new tourist guides were prepared. Honduras Copán Valley Project Impacts Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR are home to several World heritage Sites such as Angkor Wat, Luang Prabang and Hué, but also to very poor communities living around them
The average length of stay per tourist of Angkor Wat was only 1.8 days, due to a lack of additional tourism offerings beside the visits to the temples.
The Stay Another Day Initiative aimed at increasing the length of stay and average spending per tourist. It gave tourists the opportunity to learn more about the local culture and help NGOs and socially responsible enterprises to sustain and expand their work
This initiative was a source of benefit for communities, locally-owned hotels, guesthouses, tour operators, souvenir sellers etc. Cambodia, Vietnam, Lao PDR
"Stay Another Day" Stay-another-day.org is an initiative by the Mekong Private Sector Development Facility (IFC-MPDF), a multi-donor funded initiative set up by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Lao PDR, to reduce poverty through sustainable private sector development. A booklet was published with support from GTZ. Mexico's 10 World Heritage cities Puebla Guanajuato Morelia Zacatecas Querétaro Tlacotalpan Campeche San Miguel de Allende Note: This figure does not include natural heritage. Sub-projects in agriculture and rural tourism, which financed revenue-generating activities, provision of critical infrastructure, marketing and management Sub-projects should benefit 22,000 rural residents.
National technical assistance and capacity building for relevant national organizations to enhance their capacity to continue assisting the rural enterprises and other Project partners and ensure the sustainability of the rural enterprises Jamaica
Rural Economic Development Initiative To improve market access for micro and small-scale rural agricultural producers and tourism product and service providers. Total Project Cost: US$ 17.5 M
Total Loan Amount: US$ 15 M
Approved September 2009 Project Components Going forward What do Mexico's historic cities need in order to contribute more to cultural tourism revenues ?
What could the World Bank do to support Mexico's historic cities in their progress ? Image of one of two simian sculptures on Temple in Copan Image of Angkor Wat, Cambodia. Opportunities for Cultural Tourism Mexico's Mexico City Oaxaca Oaxaca is inscribed on the WHL for Monte Albán and the colonial historic city center
The city is alive with rich physical and intangible cultural assets
Oaxaca is a magnet for cultural tourism, with more than 1/4 of visitors quoting "culture" as the reason for traveling there
Visitors are 85% nationals, attracted by the rich cultural activities, festivals, art galleries, hospitality and arts and crafts Monte Albán Oaxaca Pedestrian Street Public, Private and Non-Profit Investments in Cultural Offerings A unique cultural tourism offering based on
Conservation of monuments and urban space
Museums, festivals, musical events, theater, cultural centers
Support to creative industries and scholarships to visual arts students
Indigenous groups managing natural and cultural circuits in neighboring areas Guelagueza celebrations The "magic village"of Capulalpam Oaxaca's Rich Heritage and Cultural Tourism