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Transcript of Victorian Period
Philosophy and Religion during the Victorian era
Men could basically do whatever they want. They had the ability to go and be with whoever they wanted before marriage and it was considered "OK". Men had total control over their wives. Everything was the Man's property. They were the only ones who could work gender wise, so women relied upon men.
Women on the other hand were quite different. They had to marry to survive because they weren't aloud to have jobs. And to get married women had to be perfect angels. As in they had to be virgins, must be a proper christian woman, had to be a respectful woman, and if a woman did express any sexual desire, it was seen as a disease that needed to be taken care of immediately and with drastic measures- like removing the sex organs.
There were four social classes in the Victorian Period. They were: the Upper Class, Middle Class, Lower Class, and the Under Class.
The Upper Class were the nobles,
Middle Class were the shop owners,
Lower class were the workers,
and the under class were the impoverished
Sigmund Freud was born May 6, 1856, in Frieberg, Morovia, in the Czech Republic, to Jacob and Amalia Freud, he was the youngest of three children, that his father had from previous marriages. At the age of four his family moved Vienna, Austria. In 1865, at the age of 9 he began attending the Gymnasium. He graduated secondary school summa cum laude, highest honors, in 1873, at the age of 17. He began studying medicine at the University of Vienna. In 1881 he got his doctorate in medicine, and began working, until he opened his own private practice and got married in 1886. In 1887 his oldest daughter was born, in the years to come he would have five more children, three sons and two daughters. After years of work he moved to London in 1938 with his wife and youngest daughter, because his daughter was interrogated by the Gestapo. Freud died September 23, 1939, due to cancer.
"i am sosa" -Kevin
Freud's Most Notable Work
There was no mixing of the social classes
People rarely left the social class that they were born into
The under class was also known as the "Sunken Class" because there was such a large gap between the impoverished and the working class.
Social classes have been coined since around the late 18th century and remained fairly stable despite periodic and frequent upheavals
The poorly treated working class had no say in the government and became very hostile. Ex. :
Reform Act (1832)
Abolition of Corn Laws (1846)
Social classes dwindled after World War I
Society was segregated, with each social class living, working, and traveling in their own area and knowing better than to stray from their own designated area.
Trains had different compartments for the members of each social class.
Impoverished class: Beggars, bums, etc.
Lower class: Working class, physical laborers, daily/weekly wage
Middle class: Clean working class, mental laborers, monthly/yearly wage
Upper class: Aristocrats, inherited land/businesses,
Know officially as
An Act to amend the representation of the people in England and Wales
, or The Representation of the People Act 1832 for short, the Reform Act of 1832 was an Act of Parliament that reformed the electoral system of England and Wales. Led by the Prime Minister Lord Grey, it had been a long time coming. The people had tried to reform Parliament for many years before 1832 but, when the pressure put on the government by the people was coupled with the backing of the Prime Minister, action was taken. The act gave more electoral seats to larger cities and increased the total number of eligible adult males that could vote by approximately 65%.
The Campaign for the Repeal of the Corn Laws, also known as the Abolition of the Corn Laws,
The Victorian Period: Propriety
- Propriety is the state or quality of conforming to conventionally accepted standards of behavior or morals.
- The Victorian period was a reflection of Queen Victoria herself. Many of her actions and beliefs were enforced and shared with the society, including her belief in the value of domestic propriety along with moral responsibility.
- An example of domestic propriety would be the role of women, and how they were morally expected to behave at home. It was expected of them to be the housewife, and housework was seen as morally correct and virtuous. Women who went against, or suggested that a man could do more was practically condemned. Society was almost centered and dependent on the propriety of a woman.
- A woman's purity was also held to high moral standards. A woman who was impure was considered not to be a woman at all, and was seen as less of a person.
- Despite the desire of a morally correct society, this society also proved to contain much moral impropriety and social issues as well.
Charles Darwin's Theory
Charles Robert Darwin, FRS was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. Charles Darwin Was Born: February 12, 1809, The Mount, Shrewsbury, United Kingdom and he died Died: April 19, 1882, Down House, United Kingdom
He received some awards among those awards were The Copley Medal, Royal Medal, Wollaston Medal.
Irish & British Relations
Darwin’s five theories were:
Evolution: species come and go through time, while they exist they change.
Common descent: organisms are descended from one, or several common ancestors and have diversified from this original stock
Species multiply: the diversification of life involves populations of one species diverging until they become two separate species; this has probably occurred billions of times on earth!
Gradualism: evolutionary change occurs through incremental small changes within populations; new species are not created suddenly.
Natural selection: evolutionary change occurs through variation between individuals; some variants give the individual an extra survival probability.
Freud is considered to be the founding father of psychoanalysis. He developed some theories during his lifetime, and they are considered his most influential work. The Conscious and Unconscious Mind, The Id, Ego, and Superego, Life and Death Instincts, and Psychosexual Development. These theories are still used today.
Were not required to work.
Had to follow certain rules and etiquette.
Spent most of their time attending social events.
The upper classes were usually highly educated. They received tutoring until they were old enough to attend school. Education focused on the classics, Latin and Ancient Greek. After that, upper class students either went to Oxford or Cambridge, with Oxford typically preparing students for government jobs and Cambridge preparing students for academic jobs. Also, students typically made contacts designed to help them later on in life, reinforcing their position in the class structure.
Bad, unsanitary working conditions.
Lots of physical labor.
The working classes had almost no political power. They were industrial laborers, farmers, domestic servants, tailors, bricklayer, bakers, commercial clerks and other professionals. The more skilled workers established trade unions designed to protect them from exploitation. The unskilled workers were more vulnerable to exploitation; middle and upper-class men sometimes had sex with servants, according to the University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh.
Worked, but in good conditions.
The middle class consisted of bankers, merchants, ship-owners, smaller factory owners, mine owners, barristers, solicitors, engineers, architects and all but the most successful doctors. The industrial revolution not only helped the upper classes rise, but also helped the middle classes by providing opportunities for shopkeepers and merchants to sell the products of the factories. Clerks and managers were needed to run the growing economy and the expanded cities. The government also expanded, creating new jobs for the middle class.
Throughout the Victorian Era, the Irish were held to be an inferior race compared to Anglo-Saxons.
The conscious and unconscious mind; he believed that a persons behavior and personalities are derived from the constant and unique interactions of conflicting psychological forces that operate at three different levels of awareness: the precocious, the conscious, and the unconscious.
The technology of the Victorian Era was based on a time period known as the Industrial Revolution, which began in the late 18Th century and ended in the early 19Th century. During this era, new tools were changed in many ways. The industrial Revolution thrived was in Britain, where business improved because of advances in technology. This also affected daily life by bringing on new laws, exchanging roles in the family, and much more
Much of what was going on as Philosophy and Religious wise was very black and white as far as views and what people thought. Progressive and Conservative people had disputes as well as believers and non believers. Of God
Freud's Most Notable Work Continued
The Conscious and Unconscious Mind: Freud believed that a persons behavior and personalities are derived from the constant and unique interactions of conflicting psychological forces that operate at three different levels of awareness: the precocious, the conscious, and the unconscious.
The Id, Ego, and Superego: According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, personality is composed of three elements. These three elements are known as the id, the ego, and the superego, and they work together to create complex human behaviors.
Life and Death Instincts: He initially described a class of drives known as the life instincts and believed that these drives were responsible for much of behavior. Eventually, he came to believe that these life instincts alone could not explain all human behavior. Freud determined that all instincts fall into one of two major classes: the life instincts or the death instincts.
Psychosexual Development: Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages in which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas.
Racism was an issue.
The Electrical Telegraph was invented by Charles Wheatstone 1837 (Britain). And another one was made by Samuel F. B. Morse in 1836 (America).
Darwin's theory on evolution was a huge game changer to the world. Here you had a man going against so many beliefs towards the church during an Era that most people didn't even think to go against the church's beliefs. (he was sadly mistaken)
In cartoons such as "Punch," portrayed the Irish as demon-like creatures with prognathous jaws, which gave them the look of lower evolutionary order.
Queen Victoria was born at Kensington Palace, London, on May 24, 1819. On the death of William IV's death, she became the Queen of England at the age of 18.
Queen Victoria was the longest reigning British monarch in history. She was Queen from June, 1837 until her death in January, 1901. That's just under 64 years!
During her reign, there were at least seven attempts to kill her. Several of them would be assassins who were sent to a mental asylum and were declared insane.
She was barely five feet tall.
She proposed to her husband Prince Albert. Prince Albert was her first cousin and they had nine children.
Despite her nine children, Queen Victoria hated child birth and was repulsed by pregnancy.
She started the white wedding dress trend.
German was her first language.
She loved singing and painting.
Women were essentially child-bearing and housekeeping machines and were much lower in the social classes than their male counterparts.
Women and children were only to speak if spoken to and were there only to make the man of the household look good. If they did not know their place, the whole household was thought to be shameful by the rest of their social class.
As Freud expanded his sphere of inquiry to include basic questions about moral and political life, he inspired intellectuals and artists to take his theories about conflict, desire, and the unconscious into new areas. These theories seemed to many to open promising new avenues for understanding the successes and failures of modern society.
When Sigmund Freud introduced psychoanalysis to the United States in 1909, he was surprised by the enthusiastic American reaction to his ideas. Freud wasn't used to this because the people in Europe did not like his theories.
There were still some people that thought his theories led straight to deception.
The sewing machine was another invention that came out during the Victorian Period. It was an American invention made by Isaac Merrit Singer.
The microphone is another invention that came out during this time period. It was invented by Thomas Edison in 1878 and it is an invention still used in modern time.
Gothic Revival architecture became increasingly significant during the period, leading to the Battle of the Styles between Gothic and Classical ideals. They had also created a literature that also inspires readers
Industrialization brought with it a burgeoning middle class whose increase in numbers had a significant effect on the social strata itself: cultural norms, lifestyle, values and morality. Identifiable characteristics came to define, in particular, the middle class home
Although conservative in some respects - like many at the time she opposed giving women the vote - on social issues, she tended to favor measures to improve the lot of the poor, such as the Royal Commission on housing. She also supported many charities involved in education, hospitals and other areas.
During the Industrial Revolution , Great Britain was the strongest nation in manufacturing and economics. The finance in Britain and the poors chance in being placed in a higher society skyrocketed. While all this was happening, new discoveries were made in medicine, which gave better treatment for disease and improved the overall health in Britain. The British also discovered new techniques in metal craft. The metal became more durable and much cheaper to produce. This new material could be formed into house frames, which stabilized homes and helped reduce the occurrence of hazards.
The two dominant moral views were Utilitarianism and Institutionalism This effected how many of the social classes acted and treated each other especially with the English and Scottish. All though John Stuart Mill had many beliefs in Liberty, many people still had struggles with equality due to Utilitarianism
She passed the representation act of 1884 this made it possible for all men who had 10 euros to their name to vote or owned land worth 10 euros to vote.
But in the 1840s, the Irish lost more than a million people due to the infamous potato famine. In fact, the Irish blame the British Government for the famine.
After her husband's death in 1861, the
Queen slipped into a long depression, and
she only wore black for the rest
of her reign.
Only the rich and those high in the social ranks sent their children to schools. Schools were private; for only the elite, and were supported by private endowments from the children's rich parents.
Foreign policies of the queen were to spread peace and reconciliation.
As a charity act to those who were not high in the social ranks, churches set up Church Schools, which were essentially what we know as Sunday School, teaching the children how to read the Bible
The Victorian era was a time when the class structure became more complex. There were two major changes in the Victorian class structure. The old aristocracy, always a part of the upper class, was joined by the new gentry -- a group that acquired wealth through industrial activities, commerce and professional occupations. Also, a new middle class emerged, which had some comforts but was often excluded from the political process in Britain.
Around the Victorian Period is when Religion and Science Started to drastically change. Many people including Historians had changes as far as views with Religion many parts of Science and Religion clashed with what people believed in. Many parts of Philosophy during this time had things that dealt with reasoning and Religion concern.
Those who could not find work were the sunken people. They usually lived in poverty. Many of the poor came to cities with the hope that they would find work and higher wages. Some were trapped in poverty, seasonal employment and cramped row housing.
There were new advancements in healthcare and medical care, but the limited resources and experience prevented those of lower social classes from getting proper medical treatment because they weren't considered to be as important.
Throughout the second half of Queen Victoria's reign, campaigns for "home rule" formed, which caused violence among the way.
William Gladstone Liberal party's split for Ireland home rule in 1886