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ESL Teaching Methods:

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Ashleigh Krastin

on 11 November 2013

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Transcript of ESL Teaching Methods:

ESL Teaching Methods:
Early & Contemporary Approaches

Early Approaches
Contemporary Approaches
It's time for some Trashketball!
1. Which approach is similar to Asher's Total Physical Response Method?
Grammar Translation
Direct Method
Audio-lingual Method
The Silent Way
Total Physical Response
Content-based
Learning
Communicative Language
Teaching
Task-based Learning
It is a language learning method based on the coordination of speech and movement.
Developed in 1960s by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University.
Similar to Krashen's Natural Order Approach because Asher believes that listening always occurs before production and production only occurs when the learner is ready.
Memories were stronger when they could be connected to movement, pictures, and tangible objects.
Typical TPR activity is giving instructions & having students do the action, i.e., "Sharpen the pencil," "Give Ben a high five," etc.
Criticisms
It can be hard for a teacher to develop an entire lesson based on this approach without becoming repetitious.
Transitioning from the listening and responding stage into the productive stages, like oral interaction can prove to be difficult with a whole class of second language learners.
Based on the thought that learning a language comes from being put in a situation where real meaning has to be communicated.
When learners are put into situations where they have to produce a meaningful message for someone, natural language learning strategies take over and give them the opportunity to learn.
Example: Having classmates get to know each other on a deeper level by asking questions like "What are your hobbies?," etc.
Criticisms
May be hard to use in lower levels due to lack of vocabulary.
Some people argue that authentic and meaningful conversation can not happen in the classroom because the conversations will be set up for the students, which defeats the purpose of CLT.
"The Army Method"
Originated from
: Behaviorist theory of Learning languages.
Method:
Relies on repetition drills and used on a large group of students.
Similar to:
Direct Method
Methodology
: Drills & Pattern Repetition
FOUR PARTS:
1.)
REPETITION:

students repeat what the teacher says
2.)
INFLECTION
: Teacher says a word, the students say another form of the word back to the teacher.
3.)
REPLACEMENT
: Teacher says a sentence and students replace one of the words for a different word.
4.)
RESTATEMENT
: Teacher says a sentence and students rephrase the sentence.
Spanish Class:
Originated in the late 1960s, early 70s by Caleb Gattegno
Silent refers to the teacher being silent NOT the students.
2. What is an acceptable activity that can be used to encourage authentic language learning per the Communicative Language Teaching Method?

In task-based learning the students are given small tasks that lead to a specific goal.
3. Who is silent in the Silent Way approach?
Non-communicative method that involves exclusive use of target/L2 language, uses a step by step progression of material
and considers correct translation to be very important; sometimes called the natural method.the method refrains from using the learners' native language and uses only the target language.

Characteristics features:
Characteristic features of the direct method are:
teaching concepts and vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life objects and other visual materials
teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i.e. having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language)
centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation)
focus on question-answer patterns


Example:
Introduction of new word, number, alphabet character, sentence or concept (referred to as an Element) :
• SHOW...Point to Visual Aid or Gestures (for verbs), to ensure student clearly understands what is being taught.
• SAY...Teacher verbally introduces Element, with care and enunciation.
• TRY...Student makes various attempts to pronounce new Element.
• MOLD...Teacher corrects student if necessary, pointing to mouth to show proper shaping of lips, tongue and relationship to teeth.
• REPEAT...Student repeats each Element 5-20 times.
This is a non-communicative approach that relies heavily
on reading and translation, mastery of grammatical rules
and accurate writing.

Goal: The method has two main goals: to enable students to read and translate literature written in the target language, and to further students’ general intellectual development.

The grammar-translation method was the standard way languages were taught in
schools from the 17th to the 19th century.

4. Which method is referred to as the "natural method"?
5. Which method is a non-communicative approach that relies heavily on reading and translation, mastery of grammatical rules and accurate writing?
Point System
Shot but missed = 5 points
Shot from closest line = 10 points
Shot from middle line = 20 points
Shot from farthest line = 30 points

Answer question incorrectly =
Turn for other team

Questions!
6. Who is Caleb Gattegno?
7. The Audio-lingual Method has 4 parts: repetition, inflection, replacement, and restatement. Inflection is when....?
- All subjects are taught in English and language learning techniques are integrated in the teaching of curriculum.
Strategies for manipulating Languages:
Cognitive
: Students notice and attend to information in working memory; They engage in solving basic problems with the language and ceoncepts they're acquiring.
Associative Stage:
Errors are corrected and connections to related knowledge are strengthened; knowledge and skills become proceduralized.
Goals:

Advantages
Vs.
Disadvantages
◾1. Language learning becomes more interesting and motivating.
2. ◾It helps students develop valuable study skills such as note taking, summarizing and extracting key information from texts.
3. ◾Developing collaborative skills, especially when using group work, which can have great social value.
1. can confuse learners and may give them the impression that they are not actually learning language.
2. ◾Students get very few opportunities to hear English language from native speaking peers.
3. Valdes Found that "questioning, critical thinking and collaborationg can become frustrating and can lead to non- participation, and even dropping out."
8. Name a common NEGATIVE outcome of Content-Based Instruction.
- Constructive Knowledge

- Use Language Purposefully

- Learn about language Through context

- Gain academic level of English Language Proficiency

- Use curriculum to accelerate English Language Proficiency
Autonomous Stage:
Performance becomes automatic, requiring little attentional effort. cognitive resoureces are fed up for the next cycle of problem solving, concept learning.
Autonomous Stage: Performance becomes automatic, requiring little attentional effort.
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