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SCEB_E12 - Countering Social Exclusion of Children in India
Transcript of SCEB_E12 - Countering Social Exclusion of Children in India
Factors Process of
Identity Capital Formation Economic Condition
Geographical Location Family
Factors Parental Support
Social Background Social
Infrastructure Individual Attributes Aptitudes
as a Citizen Income Resources
Health, Housing, Infrastructure
Positive Psychology Identity Capital Medical Model Social Model Negative social attitudes and barriers to participation
faced by an individual with impairment Impairment due to a biological cause that prevents normal functioning in the society Civic Integration Economic Integration Social and Community
Integration Rights and recognition accorded within the existing democratic and legal system Ability to access employment and income growth opportunities Nationality
Growing up with Parents
Access to Media Inclusion in the public safety net and ability to live a normal social life and develop community networks Rights Based Approach To Counter Social Exclusion of Children Calls for equal opportunities and non-discrimination
Special rights to disabled children Models of Participation as a Citizen UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNICEF 1989) signed and ratified by the majority countries in the world INDIA has signed and ratified the UN Convention on Rights of Child Timeline of Government Initiatives in India For Social Inclusion of Children 1959 1985 1974-75 UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child was adopted by the UN General Assembly. This Declaration was accepted by the Government of India National Policy for Children adopted in 1974 and setup of National Children's Board to act as a forum to plan, review and coordinate the various services directed toward children
ICDS (Integrated Child Development Services) Funding Programme Setup in 1975 Department of Women and Child Development was set up in the Ministry of Human Resource Development 1992 Department of Women and Child Development formulated a National Plan of Action for Children in 1992.
The Government of India ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child on 12 November 1992 1 2 3 UNESCAP Decade of the Disabled Persons from 1993-2002, World Conference on Special Needs Education in Salamanca in June 1994
Spotlight on to people with disabilities, especially on education as a vehicle for integration and empowerment International Policy Impetus For Disabled Persons Project Integrated Education of the Disabled Children (PIED) launched in 1987 in collaboration with UNICEF
Rehabilitation Council of India Act (1992): states that Children with Special Needs will be taught by a trained teacher
Persons with Disabilities Act (1995): educational entitlement for all Children with Special Needs up to 18 years in appropriate environment
National Trust Act (1999): provide services and support to severely disabled children Indian Policy Impetus For Disabled Persons 1990s onwards: Increasing Momentum For Inclusive Education of Disabled Children In 2005, MHRD launched National Action Plan for Inclusion in Education of the Children and Persons with Disabilities
In 2006, MSJE formulated National Policy for Persons with Disabilities
The 86th Constitutional Amendment (2007) mandated free and compulsory education to children, up to 14 years with a 'zero rejection' policy (Sarv Shiksha Abhiyaan (SSA)) Regular and Special Schools Private and Government Schools NGO-Run Schools Inclusive Education Delivery Models Majority of School going Disabled Children in India attend regular schools which often have poor provisions to cater to their learning needs
Special Schools emerging as a reaction to inadequacies of mainstream schools
Special Schools criticised for their low penetration rates because of high service delivery cost and development of 'specific disability culture'
Need for greater collaboration between Special and mainstream schools Economic marginalisation of most disabled children in India leading to enhanced attractiveness of Government Schools vis-a-vis Private Schools which are expensive
Government efforts focussed primarily on increasing access, rather than quality of education in classrooms
Need for change in classroom culture which is responsive to learner diversity and adapting teaching methods to suit specific needs of disabled/disadvantaged children Key players in delivery of special education through grants-in-aids received from government schemes or private sector
Globally, NGOs have been successful in bringing concerns of marginalised groups into the spotlight
Being actively sought by the government for changing the role of special education centres and in meeting goals of mainstreaming Deepa Academy - Purpose and Linkages Founded in 2002 to support primary education of Physically challenged Dalit children.......with ultimate aim of enabling social integration and achievement of individual potential One of such NGOs is the DEEPA ACADEMY
( JEEVAN JYOTI TRUST) located at Indranaj Village in Gujarat Economic Linkages Strong support from village community which predominantly has a Dalit population
Outside village the links exist with certain Gujarati businessmen and Spanish citizens who are willing to provide support Social Linkages Voluntarily don't access support from government schemes as they deem it is a very bureaucratic process
Government support limited to receipt of aids and appliances such as wheelchairs, crutches, braces etc
No links with any political parties Political Linkages Primary Education delivered with help of 2 teachers who have completed Primary Teaching Certificate course and providing vocational training for handicrafts
Prepare children for mainstream education in government schools while developing self-sufficiency Standard 1 to 4 Enrolment in nearby government school for further education with bus transport and boarding facilities
Mainstream integration with continued support as a resource center to cater to special needs of children Standard 5 to 8 Fund further education as per capacity and also ready to provide lifetime counselling for accessing employment opportunities
Objective is to act as a second-home and family like source of strength for orphans and other disadvantaged children Standard 8 and beyond Pedagogy And Objectives The faculty members have leveraged their own personal experience in learning as a disabled student and have tried responding effectively to distinct learning needs of its students Breaking Away From Image of 'Charity Act' Focussed on providing education for better socio-economic life opportunities and creation of identity capital rather than delivering basic life skill activities to its students Improving Issues of Disabled Identity And Complex Identities Successful in instilling positive self identity of being 'able' thereby increasing opportunities for greater socio-economic participation and acknowledging the complex issues of multiple identity (gender, caste, disability) Achieving Responsiveness to Greater Learning Diversity Encouraging students to attend government schools after standard 4 while continuing special education support, the academy has forged greater links with mainstream education thereby ensuring social integration and equality of opportunities Enabling Integration with Mainstream Education Achievements of Deepa Academy's Model
For Inclusive Education Recommendations To Enhance Service Provisions For Identity Capital Creation and Replication of Deepa Academy's Successful Model Integration with Government Policies and Initiate Cooperation with Similar NGOs Urgent Need to Embrace New Government Initiatives and bring academy's children on policy radar
Cooperation with similar NGOs in Gujarat is essential for these children to reinforce their positive identity as a group and achieve greater representation thereby accelerating the process of identity capital formation Enhancing Social Linkages While the academy has flourished with the strong support of local community, it needs to expand its network and establish links with communities in order to gain from research relevant to disabled children and to adapt new efficient models of delivering inclusive education Improving Discipline Through Active Monitoring of Outcomes Using Performance Indicators In line with its objective to increase socio-economic participation of its children, Deepa Academy needs to establish greater disicipline by tracking learning progress, increase in social integration, and benchmarking special education delivery methods with global standards In 2002, Support Provided by
Smt Hiraben Raisangbhai (Donated Land)
Basque Government, Spain
Donations from Gujarati businessmen
Other Material Support from village people Facilities For All Round Development Nutrition Meals provided in house as a part of boarding arrangement but as children are predominantly vegetarian, lack of high protein non vegetarian diet is compensated for with the help of low cost vegetarian food items such as soya milk Physiotherapy Along with provision for visiting physiotherapist also leverage Social and Economic Links to provide financial support for surgeries and critical operative procedures in hospitals Computer Education A full time trained teacher, Bhavna Ben oversees the computer education program in order to enable access to innovative online education methods and to keep pace with mainstream education Focus On Intellectual Disabled Bhanu Bhai, is a certified trainer for Intellectually Disabled children and provides special education support throughout even after standard 4