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Onshore and Offshore Oil and Gas
Transcript of Onshore and Offshore Oil and Gas
Non-flowing wells do
have enough natural pressure to push the oil or gas to the surface.
Secondary recovery is the process of attempting to remove the remaining oil from the deposit.
Secondary Recovery Continued
Kinds of Oil and Gas
Recovered oil: crude oil (various kinds, example:light crude oil)
Recovered gas: shale gas, coalbed methane
Oil and Gas Recovery
There are two ways oil and gas can be removed from the ground:
Onshore and Offshore Oil and Gas
After secondary recovery has taken place, only about 60% of the oil is recovered.
The Formation of Oil and Gas
Millions of years ago, oil and gas were created by animal and plant remnants through the process of heat, pressure, and bacterial action.
Main Oil and Gas Sources in Canada
Looking For Oil and
The search is difficult and Geologists must look carefully to make it worthwhile.
Techniques Used While Looking For Oil and Gas
Geologists must look for clues to determine if oil and gas are in the area:
rocks containing oil
conduct seismic survey to locate structure
Determining The Presence of Oil and Gas
The process of determining if oil and gas are in the area is very costly and time consuming.
Where Oil and Gas
Oil and gas are found in geological structures that trap them so they won't rise.
a layer of porous rock
upper and lower layer of non-porous rock
80% of the world's natural gas is found in these traps
Political Conflict in Alberta's Oil Sands
Global and domestic conflict over the ecological harm the rapid growth is causing
The oil and gas industry is
Canada's largest trade sector.
$55 billion in capital projects (2012)
550 000 people employed
Flowing wells have enough natural pressure to push the oil or gas to the surface.
The Evolution of Exploration
sources to develop natural gas declining. Canada is now
turning to more difficult and expensive ways.
How Drilling For Natural Gas Harms The Environment
The poisonous chemicals inside
oil can pollute the ground,
water and make habitats
unsuitable for for wildlife.
Gas contains toxic chemicals that can:
pollute the ground
pollute the air
How Oil Spills Harm The Environment
How Oil Spills Harm
Oil can harm organisms by:
internal exposure (ingestion, inhalation)
external exposure (through the skin, irritated eyes)
coats their bodies
Types of Oil Spills
Rapid development causes high housing costs, physical
infrastructure becoming overtaxed, and insufficient housing.
Many social services cannot meet the population pressure demands.
Communities have suggested ideas to fix the social problems and infrastructure demands.
Canada's natural gas contains high levels of sour gas
Canada has become world leaders in the safe operation of sour gas facilities
If anything were to go wrong, Canada's oil and gas industries has an emergency response
plan set in place.
Educating The Communities
The industries try to notify the surrounding communities of upcoming plans and projects.
Trade in Natural Gas
Gas is traded through the provinces and internationally through pipelines.
Trade in Oil
Pipelines and supertankers are used to trade oil.
Pipelines carry oil to provinces from Ontario westward and into the U.S.A.
Supertankers and Trade
Carry oil from places like:
the Middle East
to places like:
Atlantic Canada's Offshore Drilling
Atlantic Canada currently has four offshore oil fields:
Newfoundland and Labrador's oil and gas foundation
harsh weather conditions ex.hurricanes
field reserves estimated at 516 million barrels
$2.8 billion project in 2002
about 50km away from Hibernia and Terra Nova
more than 181 million barrels
45m deep of water
new development to produce natural gas
Making Connections: Canada's Geography
By Olivia Valenti
Mr. Silveri's Geography