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Peer Coaching

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Katy Berner-Wallen

on 28 March 2013

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Transcript of Peer Coaching

According to Fullan, "The absence of follow-up after workshops is the greatest single problem in contemporary professional development." Showers & Joyce (2002) found that teaches who worked with coaches:

1. Practiced new strategies more often and with greater skill than teachers who were not coached.

2. Retained and increased their new skills over time.

3. Demonstrated a clearer understanding of the purposes and uses of the new strategies than teachers who were not coached. "Coaching is highly focused on individuals designing their future and that of their organization and achieving excellence through setting personally and professionally challenging goals and committing to taking the actions necessary to achieve them." (Byrne, 2007)


According to Ackland (1991), peer coaching is appropriate for programs that are: 1.) non-evaluative, 2.) based on classroom observation with feedback, and 3.) intended to improve instructional strategies and techniques -Peer coaching appeared in Education literature in 1980- it was used as a follow-up to in-service professional development
(Joyce & Showers, 1980, Joyce & Showers, 1983)

-10% of learners will transfer a new skill into practice as a result of lecture and demonstration
-20% as a result of lecture, demonstration, and practice
-25% as a result of lecture, demonstration, practice, and feedback
-90% of learners will transfer a new skill into practice as a result of lecture, demonstration, practice, feedback,and coaching
(Showers, Joyce & Bennett, 1987; Showers and Joyce, 1995) Characteristics/Qualifications





of Effective Coaches Peer Coaching While watching this video clip, take some notes about the following:
What role does the coach (figure with the hat) play?
How does the coachee learn from/with the coach?
How does this look different than mentoring? "Peer coaching is the technical support focused on the development of techniques..." Use as a problem-solving vehicle

Creates a forum for addressing instructional problems

Promotes teacher as researcher

Teachers become more analytic about their own practice through reflective collaboration with peers -Planning/Implementation can raise problems

~Union Leaders may question how knowledge gained by one teacher about another's behavior will be used in evaluation procedures

~Focus on paperwork as opposed to outcomes
(Hyman, 1991) -Lack of time

~Unless adequate resources are provided, peer coaching can become burdensome and counter-productive

-Lack of necessary funding for professional development

~Program needs sufficient funding to sustain (Hyman, 1991) -The role of the supervisor

~Principal must relate differently to peer coaches-become less of an instructional leader and more an administrator (Hyman, 1991) Case Study - CSAT Process:

1. Referral of Teacher A
Admin
Team
Self

2. Teacher A meets with coordinator.

3. Coordinator puts Teacher A in touch with Teacher B

4. Teacher B observes Teacher A and makes specific instructional strategy suggestions

5. Teacher A attempts to implement strategy(ies) into his practice. Teacher A may also observe teacher B

6. Teacher B observes Teacher A again

7. Both teachers assess next step Possible outcomes:

1. Teacher A may find the strategy was not successful

He/she may request more suggestions from Teacher B

He/she may request another peer coach from Mr. Struckman.

2. Teacher A may find that the strategy has truly improved his instruction

The formal relationship between Teachers A and B may dissolve

The relationship may continue on informally (and evolve into more of a mentorship)

**The continued informal relationship between peer coaches and referred teachers is the most common outcome Mr. Struckman reports seeing.**** Facts about CSAT Peer Coaching Program

- Program has been in effect for 4 years
- Program is strictly confidential*
- Program usage has been tapering
-20 participants in 2009, 2 participants in 2012
- Teachers encouraged to seek informal team coaching

- PR and State Teacher Improvement Plan implications Currently in use in Singapore, Alabama and Pennsylvania

Fryab, J., & Koh Teik Hin, M. (2006)
Rock, M. L., et. al. (2009). Video 1. What strategies can be used to build strong relationships between peer coaches?

http://www.plcwashington.org/Page/26 (3 videos)- approx. 5 minutes Activity Think about your own practice:

Write down what you believe might be 2 areas you might like assistance in improving your practice.

Have one person act as the coach and the other as the coachee.

Try to practice effective communication skills that you saw in the previous video

Use the coaching tips and role play a coaching activity Peer Coaching Vs. Mentoring - Short term relationship - Holistic focus - Non-evaluative Helps overcome teacher isolation

Improves teachers' ability to adopt and implement new teaching and learning practices

Peer Coaching can affect academic achievement by increasing the instructional capacity of school and teachers

Encourages professional collaboration, sharing of ideas, as well as feedback and assistance with their practice that allows students to have the most optimal situation for learning, achievement, and success. While watching this video clip, take some notes about the following:
What role does the coach (figure with the hat) play?
How does the coachee learn from/with the coach?
How does this look different than mentoring? Technical Coaching/Team Coaching-

-Focus on incorporating new curriculum and instructional techniques into teachers' routines.


**All programs use peers to achieve the goal of improving the teaching and learning process. (Wong & Nicotera, 2003) Challenge Coaching-

-Concentrates on identifying and treating a specific problem and can be used in a large context than the classroom such as a school or grade level.

**All programs use peers to achieve the goal of improving the teaching and learning process.
(Wong & Nicotera, 2003) Peer Coaching:

-A confidential process in which two or more professional colleagues in similar positions work together to reflect on current practices; expand, refine, build new skills; share ideas; teach one another; conduct classroom research; problem solve (Robbins, 1991)

-Trust is established among the participants

-Coach provides a supportive, objective point of view and remains nonjudgmental; both participants are flexible

-Does NOT involve evaluation

-Conversations remain private- allows free exploration of issues and ideas

-Focus is on the teacher as a learner Collegial Coaching/Cognitive Coaching-

-Seek to improve existing teacher practices by refining techniques, developing collegiality, increasing professional dialogue, and assisting teachers to reflect on their teaching.


**All programs use peers to achieve the goal of improving the teaching and learning process. (Wong & Nicotera, 2003) -Greene (2004) found that:

~teachers are positive about the support provided through coaching, especially when they plan together with coaches

~the amount of joint planning depends on personalities of coaches

~teachers view coaches who make frequent informal contacts as more supportive

~teachers notice inconsistencies between theory and practice among coaches

~although coaches' demonstration (modeling)in the classroom does not go beyond teachers' instructional expertise, it does help teachers modify their instructional practices

~factors hindering effectiveness of coaching are lack of time, teacher resistance, and scheduling conflicts Before We Get Started..... -Observe/understand worker strengths

-Identify strategies for engaging the worker

-Offer effective criticism

-Provide useful feedback and develop problem solving skills

-Effectively provide a variety of coaching techniques Application While watching this video clip, take some notes about the following:
What role does the coach (figure with the hat) play?
How does the coachee learn from/with the coach?
How does this look different than mentoring? Technical Coaching/Team Coaching-

-Focus on incorporating new curriculum and instructional techniques into teachers' routines.


**All programs use peers to achieve the goal of improving the teaching and learning process. (Wong & Nicotera, 2003) Types of Coaching Challenge Coaching-

-Concentrates on identifying and treating a specific problem and can be used in a large context than the classroom such as a school or grade level.

**All programs use peers to achieve the goal of improving the teaching and learning process.
(Wong & Nicotera, 2003) Peer Coaching:

-A confidential process in which two or more professional colleagues in similar positions work together to reflect on current practices; expand, refine, build new skills; share ideas; teach one another; conduct classroom research; problem solve (Robbins, 1991)

-Trust is established among the participants

-Coach provides a supportive, objective point of view and remains nonjudgmental; both participants are flexible

-Does NOT involve evaluation

-Conversations remain private- allows free exploration of issues and ideas

-Focus is on the teacher as a learner Collegial Coaching/Cognitive Coaching-

-Seek to improve existing teacher practices by refining techniques, developing collegiality, increasing professional dialogue, and assisting teachers to reflect on their teaching.


**All programs use peers to achieve the goal of improving the teaching and learning process. (Wong & Nicotera, 2003) -Set clear goals

-Give clear/engaging direction

-Create work norms that promote strategic thinking

-Supportive, patient, encouraging, committed, flexible, respectful

-Willingness to share information Robbins 1991 Measuring the Effectiveness Sweeny, Barry. International Mentoring Association. (2001). http://mentoring-association.org/help-support/faq/how-is-coaching-different-from-mentoring/ Literature Literature Review -Greene (2004) found that:

~teachers are positive about the support provided through coaching, especially when they plan together with coaches

~the amount of joint planning depends on personalities of coaches

~teachers view coaches who make frequent informal contacts as more supportive

~teachers notice inconsistencies between theory and practice among coaches

~although coaches' demonstration (modeling)in the classroom does not go beyond teachers' instructional expertise, it does help teachers modify their instructional practices

~factors hindering effectiveness of coaching are lack of time, teacher resistance, and scheduling conflicts -According to Kohler, Crilley, Shearer, and Good (1997):

~Researchers have focused on three outcomes to evaluate the effects of peer coaching.

1.) procedural change in teachers' pedagogical strategies, methods, or techniques

2.) teachers' interactions with peer coaches and their ongoing satisfaction with the
process

3.) student outcomes such as academic skills and competencies

*Peer coaching activities promote a high level of student engagement in learning (Kohler et al.).

**There is not enough empirical data to support any major claim, in regard to the relation between peer coaching and learning. Before We Get Started..... -Observe/understand worker strengths

-Identify strategies for engaging the worker

-Offer effective criticism

-Provide useful feedback and develop problem solving skills

-Effectively provide a variety of coaching techniques Research Peer Coaching -Trust is established among the participants

-Coach provides a supportive, objective point of view and remains nonjudgmental; both participants are flexible

-Does NOT involve evaluation

-Conversations remain private- allows free exploration of issues and ideas

-Focus is on the teacher as a learner -A confidential process in which two or more professional colleagues in similar positions work together to reflect on current practices; expand, refine, build new skills; share ideas; teach one another; conduct classroom research; problem solve

(Robbins, 1991) Why Peer Coaching? Robbins 1997 Potential



Problems Peer Coaching of the Future: Using Technology Virtual In Ear Coaching:
Teacher utilizes a blue-tooth earpiece to receive immediate encouraging and instructive feedback Disadvantages:
Technical limitations (bandwidth, firewalls, dropped calls, audio, on-site technical support)
People Specific (teacher anxiety, processing whispers in your ear) Advantages:
Coach can be anywhere
Feedback is immediate Interview: Mr. Mark Struckman, coordinator of Peer Coaching Program,

Charter School for Applied Technologies Administration may refer teachers, but are not privy to information including:

- Whether the teacher chose to participate
- By whom he is being coached
- Degree to which teacher has made progress while in the program "Coaching is highly focused on individuals designing their future ...through setting personally and professionally challenging goals and committing to taking the actions necessary to achieve them." (Byrne, 2007) Results Results of Peer




Coaching Programs - Teacher quality is one of the most important variables affecting student achievement. (Knight 2009) - In a 2007 study, 85% of teachers implemented new skills when professional training was followed with instructional coaching.(Without the coaching only 15% implemented the skills)
(Knight 2009)

- Research conducted by Edwards et.al in 1998 show an increase in teacher's job satisfaction in comparison with those who did not receive coaching. (Knight 2009)

- Teachers who participated in the wireless "bug" study reported an increase in student participation and engagement by 20%. (Rock et. al. 2009) The big ideas themselves and their implication for the classroom practice provide the architecture for professional conversation.
(Danielson, 2009) -Conversations and collaborative actions focus on goal Peer Coaching - Focus on skill/ area of improvement - Relationship is based on one's needs and another's area of expertise - Goal is very specific - Often coach is selected by the coachee because of their expertise - Long term relationship - Mentor/mentees either choose each other or are assigned - Conversations and collaborative actions focus on all aspects of instruction/achievement - Goal may shift and be flexible - Goal is non-specific and driven by the conversation. - No specific goals/purpose besides general improvement/establishing levels of comfort Mentoring - Goal of improving performance/achievement - Collaborative relationship - Partners must establish trust
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