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Language arts project (Grammer)

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Caitlin McPartland

on 16 June 2013

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Transcript of Language arts project (Grammer)

Verb Moods
Verb moods are the conditions of the subject.
Active
Verbals and verb phrases
Language Arts Review Summative
Verbals and verbal phrases
Sentence structure
ellipsis, dashes, and hyphens
Verb Moods
Active and Passive voice
Indicative
interrogative
imperative
conditional
subjunctive
By:
Caitlin McPartland

Sentence structure
Simple Sentences
Complex Sentence
Compound-complex Sentence
Independent clauses
dependent clauses
subordinating conjunctions
Coordinating Conjunctions,
comma placement,
semi-colon usage
ellipsis, dashes, and hyphens
Ellipsis
Dashes
Hyphens
•A dependent clause (also called a subordinate clause) is a clause that cannot stand alone, because something about it implies that there is more to come. On its own, a dependent clause is left hanging, it is incomplete. It must be combined with an independent clause in order to form a complete sentence. It contains a subject and a verb.
http://grammar.about.com/od/d/g/dependclterm.htm
Example: Together they looked at the birds, at the park.
"At the park" is a dependent clause because it does not finish the thought. just reading that part you do not know who is there, or what they are doing.
You will normally use commas in two situations. When there is a list or series of events, or before a conjunction (f.a.n.b.o.y.s)
Example of a list: To make his sandwich, he took out the bread, the peanut butter, jelly, and a plate.
Example before the conjunction: He was hungry, so he made a sandwich.
There are two types of dependent clauses
There are adverb and adjective clauses.
Adverb clauses will begin with a subordinating conjunction and can move in a sentence.
An adjective clause starts with a relative pronoun and can not move in a sentence.
An independent clause is a complete thought and can stand alone in a sentence.
An independent clause needs to be a complete thought and have a subject and verb.
Example: I had to wake up early today.
There are five relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that
Example: The person who has the best aim wins the game.
Relative pronouns are used to link a relative clause to another part of a sentence and has the job of introducing the relative clause. We use the term “relative” pronoun because it “relates” to the word it is modifying.
http://www.k12reader.com/relative-pronouns/
Compound sentence
Simple sentences
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought.
Example: They practice basketball after school.
http://www.eslbee.com/sentences.htm
A compound sentence has two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (F.A.N.B.O.Y.S)
This is a YouTube video i found on sentence structure to the song "Baby" by Justin Bieber.
Here is the difference between compound and complex sentences:
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinate such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.
Example: She went outside to play, after she finished her lunch.
This has two complete thoughts, joined by a subordinate (after). She is the noun, and went is the verb in the first independent clause. She is the noun, and finished is the verb in the second independent clause. They are put together into one sentence using the word after.
A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
Example: Since it was raining outside, she went inside and watched T.V.
Since it was raining is a dependent clause. It is not a complete thought and can not stand alone. But when you join it with "she went inside and watched T.V." (an independent clause) it completes the thought and makes it together, a sentence.
Use a semicolon in place of a period to separate two sentences where the conjunction has been left out.
Use either a semicolon or a comma before introductory words for example, however, therefore, that is, or when they introduce a list following a complete sentence. Use a comma after the introductory word
http://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/semicolons.asp
A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or independent clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar. A coordinating conjunction shows that the elements it joins are similar in importance and structure
Relative pronouns
Coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. you can remember this by using F.A.N.B.O.Y.S
http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/conjunctions-coordinating.htm
Gerunds
A gerund is a verbal that ends ion -ing, and functions as a noun.
Participles
It is a verb that is used as an adjective
Infinitives
It is a verbal consisting of the word "to" and a verb
Gerund Phrases
A gerund phrase is a group of words with a gerund and modifier/ pronoun or noun phrase.
Infinitive Phrase
A group of words consisting of an infinitive and modifiers.
It occupies as: Subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of the preposition.
Example: The birds not enjoy my singing.
Singing is the gerund because it is a verb that is functioning as a noun. It occupied the direct object.
Example: The man almost crashed his car because he was speeding.
Speeding is the gerund because it is a verb that is acting as a noun. It occupies the object of the preposition.
It is the subject of the sentence.
Example: My mom can tell if I am faking an illness so I will not have to go to school.
" faking an illness" is the gerund phrase. It is acting as the object of the preposition. Faking is the gerund.
Example: Being the manager of the new restaurant made him nervous. "Being the manager" is the gerund phrase. it is acting as the subject of the sentence. Being is the gerund and manager is the subject complement.
It mainly ends in -ing, or -ed.
Present -ing
Past- -ed, -en, -d, -t, -n, or -en (Ex: eaten)
Example: Crying, the little boy stood up, after he had fallen.
Crying, is the participle.
A group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier.
Participle Phrases
Example: Removing his shoes, Jack jumped in the lake.
"Removing" is the participle because it is a verb used as an adjective. "His" is the direct object. Removing his shoes is the participle phrase.
Example: She noticed the man walking outside her house.
"Walking" is the participle, and "outside her house" is the participle phrase.
It functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
***to + verb
Example: We have to study before the big test.
The infinitive is "to study". It is functioning as an adverb. You know it is an infinitive because study is a verb.
Example: Phil decided to give me a ride.
"To give" is the infinitive phrase. Me is the indirect object, and ride is the direct object. "to give me a ride" is the infinitive phrase.
Example: She asked me to bring some food to the party.
"To bring is the infinitive phrase, and "some food" is the direct object.
They can be past, present, or future.
There are five different moods:
indicative, imperative, conditional, interrogative, and subjunctive.
Interrogative
It is asking a question.
Indicative
It states a fact about reality
Conditional
To cause something to happen
Subjunctive
A wish, desire, or an imaginary situation; contrary to reality; hypothetical state.
Imperative
It is a command or request.
Example: Do your homework.
The speaker inverts the subject- verb order by placing the helping verb first, before the subject.
Example: Will you help me make dinner?
Example: The little girl is sleeping
Marked by might, could, and would.
Example: I might go to bed early, if i get all my work done.
Example: I wish to be at the beach right now.
Example: If i were to be a soccer player, I would have to have good aim.
Active and Passive voice
Passive
The subject is acted upon
Receives the action of the verb
Example: The apple was eaten by the hungry girl.
Apple is the subject and is being acted upon (eaten) by the girl.
In an active sentence, the subject is doing the action of the verb.
Example: She walked to school with her friends.
The subject (she is doing the action (walking).
Last name, First name. "Article Title." Website Title. Publisher of Website, Day Month Year article was published. Web. Day Month Year article was accessed. <URL>.
Nordquist, Richard. "Dependent Clause." About. Web. March 23, 2013
Marshall, PCoordinating Conjunctionsam. "Relative Pronouns". Coordinating ConjunctionsK12 Reader. Web. March 23An ellipsis is a trio of periods (…) that serve as a placeholder for text., 2013.An ellipsis is a trio of periods (…) that serve as a placeholder for text.An ellipsis is a trio of periods (…) that serve as a placeholder for text.On occasion, you might see an ellipsis used as an indication of a place where the writer or speaker has paused or lost their train of thought.On occasion, you might see an ellipsis used as an indication of a place where the writer or speaker has paused or lost their train of thought.Liz BuremanLiz BuremanLast name, First name. "Article Title." Website Title. Publisher of Website, Day Month Year article was published. Web. Day Month Year article was accessed. <URL>.Last name, First name. "Article Title." Website Title. Publisher of Website, Day Month Year article was published. Web. Day Month Year article was accessed. <URL>.
Straus, Jane. "Semicolons." Grammer book. Jane Staus. March 23, 2013.
"Coordinating Conjunctions." English Club. Web. March 23, 2013. <englishclub.com>
An ellipsis is a trio of periods (…) that serve as a placeholder for text.
On occasion, you might see an ellipsis used as an indication of a place where the writer or speaker has paused or lost their train of thought.
Bureman, Liz. "How To Use an Ellipsis… Correctly." The Write Practice. Web. March 28, 2013.
Two words brought together as a compound may be written separately, written as one word, or connected by hyphens. After a main clause, you can use a dash for a short summary of the clause.
You use a hyphen to combine two words
Nordquist, Richard. "Guidelines for Using Semicolons, Colons, and Dashes." About.com. Web. March 29, 2013.
Two words brought together as a compound may be written separately, written as one word, or connected by hyphens.
Use a hyphen with compound numbers:
Example: Forty-two
Use a hyphen to divide words at the end of a line if necessary, and make the break only between syllables
Example: action-packed
Conrey, Sean. Stolley, Karl. "Hyphen Use" Purdue Online Writing Lab. December 7, 2011. Web. March 29, 2013.
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