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Coordinating Conjunctions

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Cigdem Catmali

on 26 February 2017

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Transcript of Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions
Phrase to Phrase

I cleaned the kitchen and washed the dishes.
Sentence to Sentence

I met Jonathan, and we went out for a cup of coffee.

1) and =then
and = after that

I met Jonathan. After that, we went out for a cup of coffee.

I love to surf, and I go to the beach every weekend.

2) and = adds more information to the first statement

I saw a cat, and you saw a mouse.

3) and = connects two ideas that are alike/similar

It became very dark, and I was afraid.

4) and= used to say that something is caused by something else.

Note: When combining two sentences, always use a comma
before the coordinating conjunction.

Note: The rain fell and the wind blew.
In short sentences comma can be omitted.


Used to join two
words, phrases and sentences
referring to things that are
related in some way

Word to Word

Joining two words

I like tea and coffee. ( noun+noun)
I like apples and bananas. (noun+noun)
Most children like cookies and milk.
I like to read and write. (verb+verb)
My father is tall and handsome. (adj+adj)
I am tired and hungry. ( adj+adj)
We were tired and hungry.
Three and two are five.
Televisions and computers are dominating our daily life.
I have to shower and change.
The photos are black and white.

When using a coordinating conjunction to connect two items, do not use a comma.

Joining two or more words

Most children like peanuts, cookies, and milk.
He drinks beer, whisky, wine, and rum.
She is cooking chicken, potatoes, corn, and carrot.
Red, white, and, blue are the colors of the United States flag.

NOTE: Put a comma between the items in a series of three or more items.

Coordinating conjunctions are words which join
phrases ( group of words)
The most common coordinating conjunctions are and, but, so and or.
phrase (group of words)
phrase (group of words )
My boyfriend plays guitar and writes songs.
Last night, I cooked dinner and made a cake.
He walked into the room and sat down at the table

My best friend and my father’s father both come from Wales

I woke up at 6:00 a.m, took a shower, and had breakfast.

connects two words, phrases or sentences when the second one
adds something surprising after the first one
add a contrast

Word to Word / Phrase to Phrase

She's beautiful but stupid.
Her dress is plain but pretty. (
It's cheap but good.
He drives fast but carefully.
The meal was very expensive but not very nice. (phrase+phrase)
I went to bed but couldn't sleep.
I looked everywhere for my glasses but couldn't find them.
She knows a lot about the job but isn't very willing to work.

Sentence to Sentence
My husband likes tea, but I like coffee.
My grandmother is 83, but she still goes swimming every day.
My daughter is a very intelligent girl, but she is very lazy. ( adds something surprising)
My husband wants to go to the movies, but I want to go to the museum.
I love fruit, but I am allergic to strawberries.
My car is old, but it’s very reliable.
I had a terrible cold last week, but I still went to work.
When combining two sentences, always use a comma
before the coordinating conjunction.

( adverb+adverb)
( add a contrast)
( adds something surprising )
connects two two sentences
show result

I want to work as an interpreter in the future, so I am studying Russian at university.

I do not feel well, so I will call the doctor

I was hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

I watched TV last night, so I did not finish my homework.

I did not feel well, so I called the doctor.

Be careful with tense combination when combining two sentences with 'so'

introduces another possibility or choice

Word to word

You can have tea or coffee.
You can have ham, cheese, or tuna.

Phrases to Phrase

I have a day off next week. I will go to the movies or stay at home. (phrase+phrase)
I'd like to watch TV or (to) listen to music.
I've decided to quit school and (to) find a job.

Sentence to Sentence
We can go out to eat, or we can order a pizza. ( sentence+sentence)
He can buy the book, or he can borrow it from the library.

Put a comma between the items in a series of three or more items.

Grammar Book: Page: 209/ Exercise 2
Exercise 3

My husband doesn't like meat, nor does he like fish.

My daughter doesn’t drink milk, nor does she eat butter.

My students do not gamble, nor do they smoke.

Annaby didn’t come to class on time , nor did she read her book.

David refuses to exercise, nor does he try to eat less.

Wendy can’t whistle, nor can she sing.

Adriana and Israel were not wearing jackets, nor were they carrying umbrellas.

Nor combines two negative sentences
Nor means 'also not'
Nor requires unusual grammar :
The first sentence will contain a negative verb
The second sentence will contain ' auxiliary verb + subject+ main verb'
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