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History of Education

A brief history of 2000 years of learning.
by

Steve Rhine

on 3 February 2010

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Transcript of History of Education

A Brief History
of Learning Theory

Immortality of the Soul
"I cannot teach anyone anything
I can only make them think"
Socrates
400 B.C.
The soul is immortal
and possesses all knowledge
Sigmund Freud
1856-1939
B.F. Skinner
1904-1990
Behaviorism
Learning is controlled
by our environment
I’ve had only one idea in my life--a true idee fixe. To put it as bluntly as possible--the idea of having my own way. “Control” expresses it. The control of human behavior. In my early experimental days it was a frenzied, selfish desire to dominate. I remember the rage I used to feel when a prediction went awry. I could have shouted at the subjects of my experiments,
“Behave, damn you! Behave as you ought!”
Walden Two (1948)
Behavioral Views of Learning
Classical Conditioning (Involuntary)
Stimulus/Response
Generalization/Discrimination/Extinction
Operant Conditioning (Voluntary)
Consequences
-Reinforcement (positive and negative)
-Punishment
Reinforcement schedules
-Continuous/Intermittent
-Shaping/Successive approximations
Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura
1925-
Observational Learning
We learn through models
Principles
1. Observational learning is achieved by first imitating and then enacting a behavior overtly.
2. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if it results in outcomes they value.
3. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value.
Information Processing
Learning is controlled
by the human computer
Learning is controlled
by our psyche
(id, ego, superego)
Encoding, Storage, Retrieval
Storage: Memory
Sensory/Perceptual
Short Term
Long Term
Metacognition
Lev Vygotsky
1896-1934
Jean Piaget
1896-1980
Constructivism
The child is frightfully inconsiderate of others and egotistic; he is only concerned with getting his own way and satisfying his own desires; he is quite indifferent as to whether this hurts others or not. He is dirty and odoriferous; he does not mind catching hold of the most disgusting things or even putting them to his mouth. He is quite shameless so far as his own body is concerned and very curious about the things that other people wish to conceal from him. He is greedy and will steal dainties. He is cruel to all living creatures that are weaker than himself and filled with a perfect lust for destroying inanimate objects. He has an abundance of naughty bodily tricks, he sucks his fingers, he bites his nails, he picks his nose and plays with his sexual organs; he does all these things urged by his intense desire for self-fulfillment, and regards the slightest hindrance as intolerable.
Anna Freud, 1935
Psycholanalytic Theory
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