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OBSERVING LEARNING AND TEACHING IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE CLASS

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Carlos A. Valiente

on 29 September 2013

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Transcript of OBSERVING LEARNING AND TEACHING IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE CLASS

SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
"HOW LANGUAGES ARE LEARNED"
By Patsy M. Lightbown and Nina Spada
Presented by Carlos Arturo Valiente

CHAPTER 5

OBSERVING LEARNING AND TEACHING IN THE SECOND LANGUAGE CLASSROOM
Detail 1
Differences between classroom settings for language learning and other settings.
linguistic items are presented in isolation (simple-complex)
errors are frequently corrected(accuracy)
learning is limited to a few hours a week
native or proficient teacher is the only contact with language
limited of language discourse types(IRE) initiation/response/evaluation exchange
pressure to speak or write the second language
instruction are usually given in the learner`s native language to give in classroom management events
Description of the characteristics in
communicative
instructional settings.
input is simplified, comprehensible(contextual cues)
limited amount error correction
meaning is emphasized over form
negotiate meaning (students/implicit feedback)
limited time for learning
Not all individual students have the chance to practice the language in (big classes 25-30)
learners have considerable exposure to the language in student-student interaction
a variety of discourse types(through stories, peer and groupwork)
use of authentic materials (newspapers and television)
learners may practice sociolinguistic functional features of the language through role-plays
little pressure to perform at high level of accuracy
grater emphasis on comprehension than production in the early stages of learning
modified input is a defining feature. The teacher speaks to students in a level of language they can understand


at work
in social interaction
in a school




foreign / second language learners
emphasis on the language itself
teacher`s aim: vocabulary/grammatical rules
practice language in / outside classroom.
student`s interest in examination.

Communicative,
content-based
, and
task-based
instructional environments.
goal: learning the language
emphasis on interaction, conversation, and language use.
discussion of topics in communicative and task-based instructional environments.
topics of general interest.
the focus is on how to do some things(
task-based)
in
content-based
instruction: the subject matter, such as mathematics, history (language: medium)
teaches`s aim: learner`s ability to interact in a variety of contexts and learn to get things done.
not accuracy in some grammatical features
In structured-based instructional environments
Natural acquisition contexts
Natural and instructional settings
Description of the characteristics in
natural acquisition settings
.(table 5.1)

people`s experiences of learning languages outside classrooms, such as in social interactions, at work or in the playground.
language is not presented step-by-step
natural communication: a wide variety of vocabulary/structures
errors are rarely corrected / understanding is more important
many hours of language input each day
interaction with a number of different proficient users of the target language
learner`s opportunity to take part in different events and they may also encounter the written language in the form of notices, newspapers or poster.
second language is used to respond to questions and get information
modified input is used by native speakers when they are involved in a conversation
Description of the characteristics in
structure-based
instructional settings.
CLASSROOM RESEARCH

Reasearchers have developed a number of ways to study classroom learning and teaching to capture the individual characteristics of particular classrooms.



DIFFERENCES IN OBSERVATION SCHEMES
(COLT)Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching
Part A
Describes teaching practices in terms of content, focus and organization of activity types
recordings of pedagogical activities which may be teacher- or learner-centered
the focus may be on language form or meaning
whether there are opportunities for the students to choose the topics for discussion.

Part B
Describes specific aspects of the language produced by teachers and students (quantity of production)
whether language production is restricted
kinds of questions teachers ask
whether/ how teachers respond to errors
have been developed for use in second language classrooms
differ in several respects such as the number of categories
they may focus on qualitative or quantitative descriptions
they could be used throughout a lesson or on selected samples of classroom interaction
they may be used by observers in real time while in the classroom, or used for
used later outside the classroom to analyse audio , video recordings or transcripsts.
ERRORS

FEEDBACK ON ERRORS

GENUINE QUESTIONS

DISPLAY QUESTIONS

NEGOTIATION OF MEANING

METALINGUISTIC COMMNETS
TEACHER STUDENT
CLASSROOM A:
A STRUCTURED-BASED APPROACH
CLASSROOM B:
A COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH

Characteristics of input and interaction

CLASSROOM A



CLASSROOM B

Errors:


Errors:
very few on the part of the teacher . students make errors
questions in statement form . simplified informal speech
Feedback on errors:
. incomplete sentences
when students make mistakes the
Feedback on errors
teacher reacts . teacher repeats students` speech
Genuine questions:
with the correct form
a few and they are almost always . correction is not consistent
related to classroom management . focus on meaning
Display questions:
Genuine questions:
almost all of them . almost all of them.
Negotiation of meaning:
. get information from students
very little. focus on formal aspects . students don´t ask questions in
of the language in exchange
students have no opportunity to
Display questions:
determine the direction of the discourse . No. focus on meaning, not accuracy
Metalinguistic comments:
Negotiation of meaning:
from the start of the lesson . yes, from the teacher`s side
let students know and choose what really
Metalinguistic comments:
matters . No. The teachers doesn`t say anything


Characteristics - communication task A
CLASSROOM COMPARISONS:
student-student interactions
Communication task A: Picture description
Two girls aged 11-12 years, both in their first year of learning English in Australia. The first learner is from Hong Kong; the second is from Somalia.
One student has to describe the picture for the other student to draw.
Communication task B: Jigsaw
Two girls in a grade 7 French immersion classroom.
Take turns telling the story portrayed by the pictures and then they display them in sequence and write the story.
There are many grammatical and pronunciation
errors
in both learners
There is no
error correction
(implicit feedback)
There are many
genuine questions
to get information and ask for clarification
There are no
display questions
because the are engaged in a real communication exchange
There is
negotiation of meaning
because both learners are trying hard to understand each other
There are no
metalinguistic comments
FOCUS ON MEANING


Characteristics - communication task B
Both learners make several grammatical
errors
There is no actual
error correction.
Neither learner is sure what the correct form is
The questions that are asked are
genuine
. The students share information to do the task
There are no
display questions.
Students are actively collaborating together to reconstruct the story.
There is
negotiation of form
. Discussion of whether they are using the correct form
Students are talking about language as they focus on trying to find the right form
FOCUS ON BOTH FORM AND MEANING
Studies
Eight studies to examine one particular feature of instruction
Four studies examine corrective feedback
The other four studies investigate teachers´ use of questions
Study 1: Recast in content-based classroom Study 5: Teachers´ questions in ESL classrooms
(Explicit correction, Recasts, Clarification requests,
Metalinguistic feedback, Elicitation, Repetition) Study 6: Scaffolding and display and referential
questions
Study 2: Recasts and private speech Study 7: Open and closed questions

Study 3: Recasts and uptake Study 8: Wait time

Study 4: Corrective feedback in context
Ethnography
Study 9: Language in the home and school

Study 10: Separation of second language learners in primary schools

Study 11: Sociopolitical change and foreign language classroom discourse


Another way of observing teaching and learning in second or foreign language classrooms is to describe behavior without a set of predetermined categories. The observer takes extensive notes of the activities, practices and interactions between teachers and learners
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