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The "Green Street" Campaign and the Circuit of Culture
Transcript of The "Green Street" Campaign and the Circuit of Culture
... AND THE CIRCUIT OF CULTURE: Representation of Identities
"What is interesting is always interconnection, not the primacy of this over that." (Michel Foucault)
Paul Du Gay 1997
Football-related discorder/football hooliganism as “a hyper-masculine subculture” (Emma Poulton 2012)
"[v]iolence is often the single most evident marker of manhood.” (Michael S. Kimmel 2006)
"Consider gender [...] as a corporeal style, an “act”, as it were, which is both intentional and
suggests a dramatic and contingent construction of meaning. […] there is neither an “essence” that gender expresses or externalises not an objective ideal to which gender aspires, and because gender is not a fact, the various acts of gender create the idea of gender, and without those acts, there would be no gender at all. […] In what senses, then, is gender an act? As in other ritual social dramas, the action of gender requires a
that is repeated."
(Judith Butler 1990)
"[...] all of these films echo Judith Butler’s notion of gender as a
that must continually reconsolidate itself through discursive practises, with phallic posturing posited as a defensive reaction to male lack." (Rehling 2011)
as a reaction to the growing assertiveness of women, an anti-feminist backlash, and a reaction to the
marked by a return to hegemonic masculine values such as sexism and homosociality
"[…] the image of the
arose in the early 1990’s as a generally middle-class figure espousing attitudes and behaviors conventionally [...] attributed to the working class.
took up an anti-intellectual position, scorning sensitivity and caring in favor of drinking, violence, and a pre-feminist attitude to women as both sex objects and creatures from another species. […] These attitudes were often claimed to be held “ironically”, but they nevertheless entered mainstream culture, where they were promoted as a model for 1990’s masculinity." (Joanne Knowles 2002)
December 20, 2011:
"Soundtrack to a life of laddism
Rockers rouse the rowdy British male"
The new lad had his origin in Pop music and football. "[T]he link is hardly surprising as football has always been a bastion of blow-drying, smut-swaggering, sharp looking English laddism. The link between football and laddism was further strengthened in “football fiction”, by, for example, Nick Hornby and John King. While the former is football for family consumption, the latter’s version is about machismo, violence and hooliganism. But although the new lad may be objectionable, selfish, loutish, inconsiderate, building his life around football, drinking and sex, he was just as concerned with consumerism and labels as his new man elder brother." (John Beynon 2002)
Male rivalry is [...] eroticized
in Green Street Hooligans when Pete's friend Boover (sic), intensely jealous of Pete's relationship with Matt,
accuses them of being "a couple of gay boys"
. [...] Dispite the disturbing celebration of macho aggression and the
evacuation of women from social ties
, hooligan films self-consciously reference the performativity of masculinity and the
homoeroticism undergridding male bonds
. [...] Women, in this scenario, register the cost of football violence on relationships." (Rehling 2011)
English football hooliganism as a homophobic, homoerotic and mysogynic discourse
The Firm (TV), 1989
Mean Machine, 2001
It's a Casual Life, 2003
The Football Factory, 2004
GREEN STREET, 2005
I. D., 2005
Rise of the Footsoldier, 2007
The Firm (movie remake), 2009
Green Street 2: Stand Your Ground (video), 2009
The Rise and Fall of a White Collar Hooligan, 2012
The Rise and Fall of a White Collar Hooligan 2: England Away, 2013
Green Street: Underground (postproduction), 2013
More Celluloid Hooliganism
still from "The Football Factory"
Who is in control?
Culver City, California:
Yank Film Finance Ltd., Tring, Hertfordshire:
Baker Street Entertainment,
Lexi Alexander, from Mannheim,
(idea, script, director)
Warner Bros. Studios, owned by Time Warner Entertainment:
Universal Studios Inc.,
owned by NBCUniversal:
DISTRIBUTION + DVD UK
Company/companies (?) responsible for
Ain't It Cool
Key art campaign
Hooliganism: subculture and genre
More hools: The Football Factory, Green Street 2
An identity represented, produced and regulated for consumption
High concept or not?
Hooliganism and Film
Homosociality, Homoeroticism, Misogyny
Hunter-Tilney, Ludovic. 2011. “Pop. Kasabian. O2 Arena, London”. Financial Times, 19 December 2011, 13.
Niven, Alex. 2013. “This football violence points not to a subculture but the lack of one”. The Guardian, 15 April 2013.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/apr/15/football-violence-millwall-newcastle (18 June 2013).
Pearson, Geoff. 2007. University of Liverpool FIG fact-sheet four: hooliganism. http://www.liv.ac.uk/footballindustry/hooligan.html (18 June 2013).
Poulton, Emma. 2006. “‘Lights, Camera, Aggro!’: Readings of ‘Celluloid Hooliganism’”. Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics 9(3), 403-426.
Poulton, Emma. 2008. “Toward a cultural sociology of the consumption of fantasy football hooliganism”. Sociology of Sport Journal 25, 331-349.
Poulton, Emma. 2012: “Not another football hooligan story? Learning from narratives of ’true crime’ and desistance“. Internet Journal of Criminology ISSN 2045-6743 (Online). www.internetjournalofcriminology.com (18 June 2013).
Poulton, Emma. 2013. “The culture of production behind the (re)production of football hooliganism culture”. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies DOI:10.1080/10304312.2013.794195.
Redhead, Steve. 2006. “Hooligan writing and the study of football fan culture: problems and possibilities”. Nebula 6(3).
Redhead, Steve. Lock, stock and two smoking hooligans. Low sport journalism and the strange story of ‘hit and tell’ literature.
http://www.steveredhead.com/publications/Steve_Redhead_Lock_Stock_and_Two_Smoking_Hooligans.pdf (18 June 2013).
Rehling, Nicola. 2001. “‘It‘s about belonging’. Masculinity, collectivity and community in British hooligan films”. Journal of Popular Film and Television 39(4), 162-173.
Spencer, Stephen. 2006. Race and ethnicity. Culture, identity and representation. London and New York: Routledge.
Van Hiel, Alain; Hautman, Lobke; Cornelis, ilse; de Clercq, Barbara. 2007. “Football hooliganism. Comparing self-awareness and social identity theory explanations”. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 17, 169-187.
A fragmented nation: Britishness/Englishness/regional or other identities
“With such regional, as well as class, race and gender, differences emphasized through the microcollectives and rivalries of football firms, Britain is painted very much as what Benedict Anderson terms an “imagined community”. [...] “Britain” in indubitably an unstable signifier that covers over numerous internal divisions and is thus in constant reconsolidation.” (Rehling 2012)
Nick Love: football hooliganism as something "uniquely British" and “apparently endlessly fascinating to the rest of the world".
The "English Disease": Social Relevance vs. Nostalgia
"[W]hile no one can doubt that some fans behaved in a hooligan-esque manner at the weekend, the idea that we are returning to the terrace subculture of the 70s and 80s – with its organised "firms" and its paraphernalia of Stanley knives, amphetamines and designer clothing – is absurd." (The Guardian online 15 April 2013)
"The game of organised football hooliganism these days is a complete waste of time, with CCTV everywhere you look, and these heavy sentences being dished out. Anyone reading this, especially youngsters whove seen the Football Factory, and are getting into the scene, I would say "Dont bother". Not unless you want a long holiday at one of her majesties hotels. For me and all the older casuals now, the scene for us is a day out, few beers, wearing the gear and talking about the old times. Anything else is madness." (Hooligan Central, as accessed 18 June 2013)
“[T]hese films offer rather nostalgic fantasies of hooliganism, communal bonds, and hard, British (in most cases white and regionally London), working-class masculinity. (Rehling 2011)
The Guardian: Millwall fans at Wembley, 13 April 2013
Fantasy Football Hooliganism (Poulton)/Hooliporn (Allirajah)
Hit and Tell (Redhead)/Kick and Tell Literature (Wells)
Liminal leisure (V. Turner),
experienced vicariously (Poulton)
"a U.S. audience"
(Rehling, about Green Street)
(Blackshaw and Crabbe)
"young male audiences"
The Commodification of Football Hooliganism
English Football Hooligans in 1980
Pete Dunham: So what were you studyin' before this geezer stitched ya up?
Matt Buckner: [Hesitates] ... History
Pete Dunham: History? I teach history!
Matt Buckner: [surprised] You teach?
Pete Dunham: Yes... cheeky slag! History and P.E. What you think the GSE paid a bloody wage? Mate I'm smart as fuck!
Class in Green Street
Brimson provides an insight into why football-related disorder makes for a good narrative for other media forms:
“Hooliganism provides everything a good story should have: drama, tension, fear and villains. Throw in a bit of shame and the odd pinch of xenophobia and you have the lot.”
John King, The Football Factory, 1997.
Original caption: "The Planet Shop / Web Staff in The Firm shoot Full Fila Vintage Settanta Terrindas and Sergio Split Star brought back by Nick loves movie The Firm released Feb 2010 on DVD." http://www.80scasualclassics.co.uk/t-shirts/80s-casual-classics-what-elseyou-gonna-do-on-a-saturday-in-grey-2106401-321989-704752.php
Poulton argues that fantasy football hooliganism is consumed in various media forms as a means of satisfying a human, though more usually male, who is interested in experiencing deviant practices. The consumers are not necessarily deviant themselves, but their consumption allows them to indirectly sample the deviancy of others.