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Zakk Hedrick Period 4
Transcript of Zakk Hedrick Period 4
Total Fun Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Mr. Brannan, if you can read this you have passed the test :P . The big bang was a giant explosion of energy that created all of the universe. It created stars, galaxies, planets, people, you and me. Before the big bang there was absolutely nothing. No time, no space, no universe.The big bang made about 100 billion galaxies and more. Without the big bang there would still be emptiness and nothing at all. Earth science is the study of Oceanography, Astronomy, Geology, and Meteorology. The Universe is said to be about 13.6 BILLION years old! The earth, the galaxy, the universe, was created from the Big Bang. No one is sure where the Big Bang occurred..or why it did. People say there have been multiple Big Bangs throughout the years. Who knows? There could be one happening now. Supernovas are exploding stars. Supernovas occur when a star dies after millions of years. When stars die they emit massive amounts of energy, as well as minerals. Some stars can be about the size of the earth. Others can be 1000 times our own sun's size. People say in million of years, our sun will run out of burnable fuels. It will then turn into a white dwarf, about the size of earth. Then it will seek out another star and drain it's resources. After it drains some of the resources, it will overload and explode. When a Neutron star explodes, it flashes a white light for millions of years. It is also called a "Zombie Star". The earth is a giant system. Every part of it works together. The atmosphere keeps us safe from harmful solar rays. The Lithosphere and Asthenosphere make sure were safe from heat from the core of the Earth. There is a theory that the land masses on Earth are moving around the world. The theory is that they were once together in a super continent called "Pangea". Pangea was around a couple million years ago. The continent then broke up and drifted apart, shaping the world we see today. This is called the theory of "Plate Tectonics". The plate tectonics are constantly moving as your watching this. The plate tectonics only move a couple inches each year. At that rate it'd take about 6 years to move a foot. They wont be running away any time soon. BOOM...HEADSHOT! Atoms are the basic building blocks of EVERYTHING around us Their so small, we can fit a million of them on a tip of a hair! Their so small, we can fit a million on the tip of a single hair. These "atoms" are made up of smaller parts called Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons. Atoms arranged in a specific order that cant be broken down any more are called Elements. Elements are the things that make up whats called the "Periodic Table". Some Elements (when put together with other things) can react very little, or enough to create explosions! Some elements can be found in earth, in mountains and even under glaciers! These elements are called "Minerals". Minerals can form from Crystallization, Precipitation, Changes in pressure or temperature, and Hydrothermal Solutions. Precipitation is when water evaporates and reacts with other things to form minerals. Crystallization occurs when magma cools and elements combine to form minerals. Minerals form from pressure and temperature change when elements are pressed together. They form from heat when they melt and infuse together. Minerals form from Hydrothermal Solutions when elements come together with existing minerals, and chemical reactions occur. Chapter 3 There are 3 types of rocks; Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamporphic. Igneous is greek for fire. Igneous rock is made by intense heat. Igneous rock is practically volcanic rock. Igneous rocks are classified into 2 groups, Intrusive and Extrusive. Intrusive means that they form when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface. Extrusive rocks are formed when lava on the surface of the earth hardens. There are 6 types of minerals. They are as listed; Native elements, Halides, Sulfates, Oxides, Carbonates, and Silicates. Igneous rock can have different properties, like a Coarse Grained, Fine Grained, or glassy grained textures. It can also have a Granitic or Basaltic composition. Some examples of Igneous rocks are Granite, Rhyolite, Diorite, Andestite, or some rarer ones lke Peridoite and Komatiite. Sedimentary rocks are formed when existing rocks are broken down into sediments. Sedimentary rocks are mostly made up of weathered rock debris. Erosion is what changes Igneous rocks to sedimentary. Some types of sedimentary rocks are Congolmerate, Breccia, Sandstone (obviouslly), and Shale. The last type of rock is called Metamorphic rock. Metamorphing means to change into something else. It is formed when rocks "changed form". Metamorphic rock is formed because there is tons and tons of pressure on top of an igneous or sedimentary rock. The rock cycle is constantly being renewed. There can even be shortcuts in the cycle, (Example: Sedimentary rock not melting, or melting too much). Chapter 3 There is a thing called the Rock Cycle. It explains how rocks can change (Metamorphic to sedimentary, igneous to sedimentary, etc.) There are thousands of rocks that can be categorized into one of these groups. They are categorized by their textures, their compositions, their shininess, or even sometimes, their smell or color (barely ever used). Some rocks that can be categorized as sedimentary rocks are Breccia, Chert, Coal, Conglomerate, Iron Ore, Limestone, Rock Salt, Shale, and Siltstone. Some rocks that can be categorized as Igneous rocks are Andesite, Basalt, Diorite, Gabbro, Granite, Obsidian, Pegmatite, Periodite, Rhyolite, Pumice, Scoria, and Tuff. Some rocks that can be categorized as Metamorphic are Slate, Gneiss, Skarn, Phyllite, Amphibioite, Schist, Quartzite, Marble, Suevite, Eclogite, Serpentinite, Gossan, and Hornfels. ROCKS ARE FORMED OVER TIME! ITS NOT AN INSTANT PROCESS! Images from Geology.com Images from Pxyles.com
:) The Periodic Table There are 109 known elements. Some arent even named yet. Others last for such a short time, theres no time to study their components. There are 2 types of igneous rocks: Intrusive and Extrusive. Intrusive is formed BENEATH earths surface. Extrusive is formed ABOVE the earth. There are 2 types of sedimentary rocks: Clastic and Biochemical. Clastic means it is composed of MANY minerals. Biochemical means the dissolved substances precipitate from water solution. S Metamorphic Rock Igneous rock Sedimentary Rock The only type of rock rich in fossils is sedimentary rock. That's because fossils are compacted together. There are 4 types of maps, Gnomic, Mercator, Robinson, Conic. There are ALOT of plates that are constantly moving! Weathering is a basic part of the rock cycle and a key process in the Earth system. There are two types of weathering- Mechanical and Chemical. They work at the same time even though their different. Chapter 5 Mechanical weathering occurs when physical forces break rock into smaller and smaller pieces without changing the rock's mineral composition.. In nature, three physical processes are especially important causes of mechanical weathering: Frost Wedging, Unloading, and Biological Activity. Frost wedging is when water forces its way into rock, forcing the pieces apart. This process breaks the rock into smaller pieces, scattering them around and taking off layer by layer of rock. Sections of rock that are wedged loose may tumble into large piles called Talus which typically form at the base of steep, rocky cliffs. Unloading is when igneous rock has pressure exerted on it. Slabs of outer rock separate like the layers of an onion and break loose in a process called Exfoliation. Exfoliation is especially common in rock masses made of granite. Biological Activity refers to the ecosystem (Organisms including plants, burrowing animals, amd humans). Plant roots grow into cracks in rock, wedging the rock apart as it grows. Burrowing animals move rock to the surface, where weathering is more rapid. Decaying organisms can produce acids that cause chemical weathering. Chemical weathering is the transformation of rock into one or more new compounds. The new compounds remain mostly unchanged. Tearing paper apart would be mechanical weathering, where as burning the paper would be chemical weathering. Water is the most important agent of chemical weathering. Water promotes chemical weathering by absorbing gases from the atmosphere and the ground. Oxygen dissolved in water reacts easily with certain materials. Iron rich minerals get a yellow brown coating of iron oxide when they react with oxygen. Spheroidal Weathering is weathering that changes the physical shape of rock as well as its chemical composition. Soil is the main thing in growing plants. It contributes to the environment. It helps people, animals, plants, and all living things. It creates food for us to survive on. But there are alot of different types of soil. There are many of things plants can be grown in. Some hold water, others wont let water into it. Some are wonderful and rich in minerals, great for farming. Some are very rough and dry and are hard for roots to break through. Soil is comprised of dead organisms and minerals. The top layer of the soil is rich and fertile. The layers get less plant compatible as you go down, but the soil is renewed. Soil on the ground now wasn't there 500 years ago or 1000 years ago. When soil on the surface weathers away, new soil is there to replace it. Some people are worried that were going to run out of soil soon, and we need to make more. Humus- Decayed material from dead organisms. The 3 types of soil are clay, sand, and silt. Soil holds 0.01% of the earth's water. Soil is a composition of 49% oxygen, 33% silicone, 7% aluminum, 4% iron, and 2% carbon. Air and water makes up 50% of the soil. Did you know: One gram of soil contains from 5000 to 7000 bacteria particles? Formation of soil takes 500 years for 2 centimeters. Mass movements are known as rock slides, earthquakes, rock falls, slumps, mudflows, and earthflows. Mass movements can be triggered by water, weathering, snow and earthquakes. Mass movements are natural and are caused by the earth. All these mass movements can cause thousands of dollars in property damage. The transfer or rock and soil down-slope due to gravity is called mass movement. Rockfalls are when rocks or rock fragments fall freely through the air. This type is common on slopes that are too steep for loose material to remain on the surface. Slides are blocks of material moving suddenly along a flat, inclined surface. Slumps are the downward movement of a block of material along a curved surface. Most of these natural earthly disasters are caused by plates in the earth moving. Others are caused by the weathering away of rocks, which hit other rocks, and so on. Chapter 6 The Water Cycle is a process of earth's water being recycled endlessley. There are lots of different types of bodies of water. There are Deltas ( accumulation of sediment formed when a stream enters a lake or ocean), a Natural Levee (A ridge made up of mostly coarse sediments that paralells some streams. There are also Narrow Valleys ( A narrow V-shaped valley that shows that the stream's primary work has been down cutting towards base level), Wide Valleys, (opposite of Narrows), Artificial Levees, (earthen mounds built on the banks of a river), and drainage basins (the land area that contributes water to a stream). Chapter 7 There are alot of things that can be made by a very unlikely thing...glaciers. An Ice Sheet is an enormous ice mass that flows in all directions from one or more centers and cover everything but the highest land. The movement of glaciers is referred to as flow. Glacial flow happens two ways: plastic flow and basal slip. The glacial budget is the balance or lack of balance between accumulation at the upper end of a glacier and loss, or wastage, at the lower end. Many landscapes were changed by the widespread glaciers of the recent ice age. Glaciers are responsible for a variety of erosional landscape features, such as glacial troughs, hanging valley, cirques, aretes and horns. Glacial drift applies to all sediments pf glacial origin, no matter how, where, or in what form they were deposited. There are two types of glacial drift: till and stratified drift. Till is material deposited directly by the glacier. It is deposited as the glacier melts and drops its load of rock debris. Stratified drift is sediment laid down by glacial melt water. Weathering is the wearing away of rock debris. By contrast, much of the weathered debris in deserts has resulted from mechanical weathering. Chemical weathering, however, is not completely absent in deserts. Over long time spans, clays and thin soils do form. In the desert, most streams are ephermal- they only carry water after it rains. Most desert streams dry up long before they ever reach the ocean. The streams are quickly depleted by evaporation and soil infiltration. Most desert erosion results from running water. Although wind erosion is more significant in deserts than elsewhere, water does most of the erosional work in deserts. Wind erodes in the desert in two ways: deflation and abrasion. Deflation is the lifting and removal of loose particles such as clay and silt.` Loess is windblown silt that blankets the landscape. Unlike deposits of loess, which form blanket-like layers over broad areas, winds commonly deposit sand in mounds or ridges called dunes. Chapter 8 An earthquake is the violent release of energy within the Lithosphere from earth. Faults are fractures in Earth where movement has occurred. According to the elastic rebound hypothesis, most earthquakes are produced by the rapid release of energy stored in rock that has been subjected to great forces. When the strength of the rock is exceeded, it suddenly breaks, releasing some of its stored energy as seismic waves. The two lands masses rub up against each other and create vibration of the earth. The magnitude of the earthquakes is determined on what plates or land masses are moving, where they are moving, and which direction they are moving.