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Chapter 8: Deviance and Social Control

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on 15 October 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 8: Deviance and Social Control

Chapter 8: Deviance and Social Control
Crime
Crime-
deviant behavior that violates a law

Decriminalization-
process of making an illegal action legal
Punishment
Punishment reinforces commitment to social norms

Recidivism-
return to criminal behavior

Capital punishment-
death penalty
- more than 80% in the south, led by Texas
Defining Deviance
Deviance-
behavior that does not conform to basic cultural norms and expectations

- Deviance is based on the social context and on the power of those who label behavior deviant

- It is NOT your individual response that makes an action deviant--there must be broader social enforcement
Labeling Deviance
Labeling theory-
deviance is the result of how others interpret behavior and those labeled deviant internalize deviance as part of self-identity

Behavior is only deviant when it's labeled as such according to this theory!

Stigma-
shame attached to a behavior considered socially unacceptable or deviant
Functions of Deviance

- Deviance defines social boundaries ("normal")

- Deviance helps create social solidarity (shared enemy)

- Deviance is a source of innovation (push boundaries)

Conflict theory and symbolic interactionism explanations of deviance ?
Why deviance?
1. Individual immorality
2. Pathology/illness
3. Rational choice
4. Inadequate socialization

Theories
Differential Association-
deviance is learned through interaction with other people involved in deviant behavior (deviant subcultures)

Control theory-
behavior regulated by strength of connection to major social institutions which prevent us from violating rules (why do we follow rules?)

Strain theory-
strain or pressure on those who lack the means to achieve culturally defined goals leads them to pursue deviant routes to success (Merton)

Prison System
Which nation has the highest prison population?

Discuss with your neighbor and why you think this particular country.
The Answer is...
2.2 million people in prison in the U.S.; over 60% are racial and ethnic minorities

Prison Industrial Complex-
rapid expansion of the inmate population to the political influence of private prison companies and businesses that supply goods and services to government prison agencies

Inequality in the Prison System: WHY?
The Stats
1 in 3 African American men will go to prison at some point in their lives. 1 in 116 white men are in prison; 1 in 15 African Americans are currently in prison.

African Americans and Hispanics are 3 times more likely to be searched at traffic stop than whites, and 2 times as likely to be arrested and 4 times as likely to have forced used against them than whites at traffic stop (Bureau Justice Statistics)
(Un)Fair Sentencing
Fair Sentencing Act passed in 2010.

Prior to legislation, person with 1 gram of crack would receive same sentence as 100 grams of powder cocaine.
Who is more likely to have crack versus cocaine?
Do certain races commit more crimes?
- In a year, only 1% of African Americans (no more than 2% African American males) will commit violent crime

-No more than 0.7 percent of African Americans will commit a violent crime against a white person in a given year, and fewer than 0.3% of whites will be victimized by An African American in a given year.

- Whites are 6 times as likely to be murdered by another white person as by an African American person.

- Any given African American person is 2.75 times as likely to be murdered by a white person as any given white person is to be murdered by an African American (Department of Justice)
"For the same criminal behavior, the poor are more likely to be arrested; if arrested, they are more likely to be charged; if charged, more likely to be convicted; if convicted, more likely to be sentenced to prison; and if sentenced, more likely to be given longer prison terms than members of the middle and upper classes." (Reiman and Leighton, 2011)
White Collar Crime
White Collar Crime-
financially motivated, non-violent crime committed illegally for monetary gain.

Average sentence is 23.6 months (Yale Law Journal)
Eyewitness Testimony
http://eyewitness.innocenceproject.org/take-the-quiz/
Homeboy Industries:An alternative to gangs and prisons
1 in 100 people in the US are in jail or prison

http://stpp.sites.grinnell.edu/uncategorized/prison-nursery-programs/
Women in Prison
Female prisoners report histories of domestic violence; 32% of women in prison were convicted of killing a partner

One-third of women in prision on drug-related offenses

Fewer female correctional facilities so even further away than men typically are
Full transcript