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Chapter 3 - The Biosphere

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Tom Jacobsen

on 9 February 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 3 - The Biosphere

The Biosphere
Chapter 3
3.1 What is Ecology?
Objectives:
Identify the levels of organization that ecologists study.
Describe the methods used to study ecology.
3.2 Energy Flow
Objectives:
Identify the sources of energy for life processes.
Trace the flow of energy through living things.
Evaluate the efficiency of energy transfer among organisms in the ecosystem.
3.3 Cycles of Matter
Objectives
Describe how matter cycles among living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem.
Explain why nutrients are important in living systems.
Describe how the availability of nutrients affects the productivity of ecosystems.
What nonliving things in their environment do organisms interact with?
In what ways are these nonliving things essential to organisms?
What evidence do you see today that people in our society today are aware of the interdependence of living things?
3-1 Section Assessent
List the six different levels of organization.
Describe the three basic methods of ecological research.
Identify two ways in which you interact every day with each of the three parts of the biosphere. Land, Water, and Air.
Suppose you wanted to know if the water in a certain stream is safe to drink. Which ecological method(s) would you choose, and why?
Give an example of an ecological phenomenon that could be studied by modeling. Explain why modeling would be useful.
Ecological Methods
Observing
Experimenting
Modeling
Biomes
Aquatic
Desert
Forests
Grasslands
Tundra
photo
chemo
synthesis
herb
carn
omni
detris
vore
Stems
Sunlight
is the main source for life on Earth
Some types of organisms rely on energy stored in
inorganic
compounds.
Producers vs. Consumers
Another name for producers is ____________
Another name for consumers is ___________
Producers obtain energy from _____________
Consumers obtain energy from ____________
Types of Consumers include (list and give an example):
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the
sun
or
inorganic
compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers).
Describe:
How does a food chain differ from a food web?
How do the differing levels of consumers relate to each other?
What does trophic mean?
Ecological Pyramids
Energy Pyramid
Biomass Pyramid
Pyramid of Numbers
3-2 Section Assessment
What are the two main forms of energy that power living things?
Briefly describe the flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.
What proportion of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next in an ecosystem?
explain the relationship in this food chain: omnivore, herbivore, and autotroph.
Draw an energy pyramid for a five-step food chain. If 100 percent of the energy is available at the first trophic level, what percentage of the total energy is available at the highest trophic level?
Unlike the one-way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.
Bio
Geo
Chemical
Cycles
Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. Like water, nutrients are passed between organisms and he environment through biogeochemical cycles.
The Carbon Cycle
Biological Processes: ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Geochemical Processes: _____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Biogeochemical Processes: __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Human Activities: ____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
The Nitrogen Cycle
Biological Processes: ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Geochemical Processes: _____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Biogeochemical Processes: __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Human Activities: ____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
The Phosphorus Cycle
Biological Processes: ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Geochemical Processes: _____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Biogeochemical Processes: __________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Human Activities: ____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Nutrient Limitations
What is primary productivity?
What is a limiting nutrient?
3.3 Section Assessment
How does the way the matter flows through an ecosystem differ from the way energy flows?
Why do living organisms need nutrients?
Describe the path of nitrogen through its biogeochemical cycle.
Explain how a nutrient can be a limiting factor in an ecosystem.
Based on your knowledge of the carbon cycle, what do you think might happen if vast areas of forests are cleared?
Summarize the role of algal blooms in disrupting the equilibrium in an aquatic ecosystem.
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