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Identifying Underlying Disease

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Johanne brolly

on 10 April 2014

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Transcript of Identifying Underlying Disease

There are several ways of identifying diseases....

the method used depends on what the disease it
Identifying Underlying Disease
Identifying Melanomas (moles)
A physician may also perform a bone marrow biopsy, which uses a large needle to remove a sample of the bone marrow.

The purpose of this procedure is to diagnose lymphoma and leukemia or determine whether certain types of cancer, such as breast or prostate, have spread to the bones.

Bone marrow biopsies are usually performed in the bones of the rear hip. This procedure may also be called a bone marrow aspiration.

A typical biopsy involves the surgical removal of a mass of abnormal cells. Fine needle aspiration involves guiding a thin needle into the cancer and gently sucking out cells for microscopic evaluation.

An endoscope is a lighted tube that can be guided into the body through an orifice, such as the mouth or anus, and is used to perform a biopsy. It allows the physician to see the cells in question and then "scrape" the abnormal cells in order to get a sample. For example, throat cells may be sampled in this way.

Methods of sampling
Sampling Techniques
Continued .....

a screening test for cervical cancer.
Cells are scraped from the opening of the cervix and examined under a microscope.

How the Test is Performed

A doctor or nurse gently places an instrument called a speculum into the vagina to open it slightly. This allows the doctor or nurse to see inside the vagina and cervix and gently scrape cells to be sent to a lab for examination.

Pap Smear
Post Mortem Investigations
For P5 and P6, learners must show their understanding of the importance of cell pathology and biochemistry as a diagnostic tool.

For M4, learners must describe the techniques used in a clinical context to collect the samples required to identify underlying disease.

How are tissue samples obtained?
Most patients with cancer will have a biopsy by removing a piece of the tumor during surgery, by fine needle aspiration, or with the use of an endoscope. The method depends on the type of mass and its location in the body
The sample is stained so that the pathologist can see any abnormal cell structures under a microscope
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