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What Effect does International Relations have on War?

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Rebecca Lai

on 16 January 2014

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Transcript of What Effect does International Relations have on War?

What Effect does International Relations have on each of the Wars?
The Chinese Civil, Falklands and the Gulf wars all had significant amounts of international intervention that either caused the war, aided the victorious side or helped end the war.
Rebecca Lai
Chinese Civil Wars:
First Chinese
Civil War:
CCP and the KMT joined forces (1924-27) to get rid of the foreign influences in China
the most important port in China was Shanghai and it was still under British control
In 1927, the KMT begins the White Terror in an attempt to get rid of the CCP
What started the civil war
Second Chinese Civil War:
1926, Chang Kai Shek's army started a northern campaign to take over the major cities
once the KMT secured Shanghai and Guangzhou, Chang's army killed any communists
due to ideological differences
many communists fled to Jianxi
Jianxi was the base of the CCP and headed by Mao Zedong
Early years of the civil war, the KMT were winning
They had control of Yan'an, which was the CCP headquarters
CCP gained people's trust by promoting Land Reform and buying time
Red Army began to retaliate against KMT
used guerrilla warfare
end of WWII, Chang and Mao signed a peace treaty
Chang broke the treaty due to his mistrust of the Communists
Civil War begins in July
China has high inflation due to the over-issuing of banknotes
Chinese begins to lose trust in the KMT
Mao reconstructs the CCP
aims to establish a "people's army," which was known as the Red Army
Mao wanted to revolt against the KMT
In October 1934, Mao and his army began the Long March
took over a year to complete
CCP took land from land owners and distributed land to the peasants
they arm the peasants with weapons and created guerrilla groups
about 20,000 of the 90,000 made it to Shanxi
Mao was the recognized leader of the CCP
Chang as the leader of the KMT in January of 1949
the KMT refused to surrender during peace negotiations
By December 1949, the CCP had taken over the mainland
Chang flees with 500,000 followers to Taiwan
At the end of 1949, the CCP wins and with the support of the Chinese people, the People's Republic of China was established
CCP attempts to set up Marxism
First tried to implement the USSR Five-Years Plan
Attempts to establish foreign ties failed as well
China falls into isolation
Chang's KMT in Taiwan was the recognized government of China until the 80s
Falklands/Malvinas War
1982, Britain forced to rescue 1,800 subjects who were invaded by Argentina
Ownership of the Falklands have been in dispute since the 18th century
Argentinians hoped that British interest would fade on the island so they would gain sovereignty of it
In 1965, UN passed a resolution that required UK and Argentina to peacefully negotiate a solution to the island's sovereignty
1981, General Leopoldo Galtieri becomes President of Argentina by a coup d'etat
violated various human rights
Falkland Islanders were extremely scared of the militaristic regime in Argentina and did not want Argentine sovereignty
Argentina, by 1982, was failing politically, economically and socially
regime began to plan an attack to gain sovereignty of the island
Mar 25, 1982 Argentine arrive on South Georgia with military personnel and by the 28th, Argentina launches their invasion fleet
American President Ronald Regan attempts to persuade Galtieri to stop the invasion
British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and the Foreign Affairs Minister decide to take action and sends SSN to the Falklands
British intelligence learn of Argentina's invasion
Thatcher dispatches the Task Force
UN approves of Resolution 502
Governments of Argentina, Great Britain and Northern Ireland are to refrain from the use or threat of force in the Falklands
Demands immediate ceasefire should anything happen
Demands immediate withdrawal of all Argentine forces
Governments of Argentina, Great Britain and Northern Ireland are to seek diplomatic solutions
US Secretary of State attempts to mediate the issue
Apr 10, the European Economic Community (EEC), except for Italy and Ireland, put into effect trade sanctions against Argentina
British War Cabinet orders the repossession of the Falklands
Britain sets up a 200 mile exclusion zone around the islands
USA declares their support for Britain
May 5, Peru makes a peace plan and two days later the UN joins the peace negotiations
By May 20, peace negotiations and efforts collapse
June 6, UK vetoes a cease-fire that is proposed by Panama and Spain
June 14, Argentine forces surrender
Success made Britain proud again, especially after the Suez Crisis
Britain decides to spend more money to the military on the Falklands to defend itself
Galtieri is charged for the violation of human rights
The Junta loses the majority of their supporters
Democracy is restored in Argentina
Margaret Thatcher is a national hero after the war
Falkland Islands is still a self-governing British Overseas Territory
People who are born on the island are not considered a citizen of a British Overseas Territory, but rather as a British citizen
The war strengthened British and American ties as the US assisted the British in the war
The Falkland islanders still do not trust the Argentine government
Gulf War
After the Iraq-Iran War, Saddam Hussein desperately need money to repay the debt and damage in infrastructure caused by the war
Iraq wanted to drive up the oil prices as oil was it's main export
however Kuwait and the UAE were always exceeding its quota;thus preventing the rise in oil prices
Iraq saw the refusal as a plot to cripple their country and to prevent it from recovering
Iraq wanted to invade Kuwait because if Iraq had Kuwait, their combined oil reserve would be as big as Saudi Arabia's
August 2, 1990, Iraq invades Kuwait
UN denounces the attack
US President George H.W Bush orders the start of Operation Desert Shield
US and 38 other countries launched Operation Desert Storm
UN imposes sanctions against Iraq and also passes a resolution to allow a military embargo
Nov 29, UN authorizes the use of force after January 15,1991
Americans quickly dispatched battle fleets to the Gulf as America has interest in protecting the Saudi oilfields
they were given a monopoly on it
US/Coalition used: Tanks, missiles, battle jets and also introduced the use of GPS in battle
Iraq used: tanks, jets, chemical and biological weapons
Iraq's element of surprise allowed them to take over 24% of the world's oil supplies
Iraq bombed Israel and Saudi Arabia in an attempt to split the Coalition
Hussein's downfall was assuming the US would not help Kuwait
US/Coalition used strategic bombings and also used GPS to navigate through sand storms and rain
Pushed the Iraqis back in 3 days
Feb 27, 1991, Iraq complies with UN resolutions
Kuwait is liberated
Emir of Kuwait returns to Kuwait
Apr 11, UN declares the end of the war
to the west, war cannot break out in the middle east because of the economic and commercial stakes
access to the sea will be cut off
high oil prices
The First Chinese Civil War, the Falklands and the Gulf war were started because of foreign presences in the country, however the Falklands and Gulf wars actually had the foreign presence invade the country. The foreign presence in China was already in China long before the war
Significantly, both of the wars would not have been successful if it was not supported by the international community. The Falklands war relied on US support such as supplies and intelligence and the Gulf War was a Coalition team effort made by 39 countries.
The US need to help Britain in the Falklands war as it felt obligated to help their ally, Britain and the US have been allies for over 200 years at this point
The Gulf War saw a rise in the power of the UN. It was present when it helped make sanctions and attempt to solve the Falkland war, however the UN played a bigger role in solving the Gulf War

Both the Second Chinese Civil War and the Falklands War brought hope to their respective countries.
The Second Chinese Civil War saw the establishment of Communism in China, which was something the peasantry (who made up the majority of the population), wanted. It restored hope that the country would have stability.
The Falklands War saw the reestablishment of the British pride.

The British did not trust their government after the Suez Canal and was suffering from international ridicule, however, after the war, the British felt pride for their country.
The three wars were limited wars, each of the wars had
international help, (The Chinese Civil War was more internal than international, however the first one ended when the
Japanese invaded Manchuria), however the wars only occurred in the country where the conflict occurred. The countries did not use their full military powers during the wars.
Each of the three wars had sides of conflicting ideology. In the Chinese Civil War, it was Communism versus Capitalism. In the Falklands War, it was the Capitalist, though this was the last imperial war for England, versus a military dictatorship. In the Gulf War, there was not a conflict of ideology, however, the US supported the Kuwaitis during the war, because the Iraqis had turned on them (ideology-wise). The conflicting ideology feeds on the time period as this was occurred before the Cold War, during the Cold War, and at the end of the Cold War. These three wars shows the escalating intensity of the Cold War.
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