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Corn Sweeteners Manufacturing using Enzyme Technology

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on 28 January 2015

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Transcript of Corn Sweeteners Manufacturing using Enzyme Technology

pH = 4.5
Avoid reversion reaction
Efficiency increases if a debranching enzyme is also used (endo-hydrolase)
Maltose Syrup
expensive so use is limited to specialty products
Glucose
Branched oligosaccharides
Malto-oligosaccharides
Gentio-oligosaccharides
Gluco-oligosaccharides
Trehalose
non-reducing, non-cariogenic sugar
wide pH stability
cryoprotectant stability
Corn Sweeteners Manufacturing
Using Enzyme Technology

ISOMERIZATION
Corn Sweeteners Production

Advantages of corn sweeteners
Economical: reduced process costs, good yields
Process & Product :
baking (quickly and easily fermented)
crystallization control
adds texture, enhances flavor and keeps color
stabilization (conservation)
gluten-free
Food and beverage industry:
1/3 of industrial use of enzymes


Derivatives
STARCH
Dextrins
Maltose
S. Gros, L. Mage & J. Politano
References
Christine Scaman. “Corn Sweeteners: Enzyme Use.” In Encyclopedia of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Food, 178–82. Taylor & Francis, 2010.
Bhosale, S.H.; Rao, M.B.; Desphande, V.V. "Molecular and industrial aspects of glucose isomerase" Microbiol, Rev. 1996, 60, 280-300
DiCosimo, Robert, Joseph McAuliffe, Ayrookaran J. Poulose, and Gregory Bohlmann. “Industrial Use of Immobilized Enzymes.” Chemical Society Reviews 42, no. 15 (2013): 6437–74.
TH.Richardson , "A Novel, High Performance Enzyme for Starch Liquefaction", The Journal of Biological Chemistry,Vol.277,N°29, 2002

website:
http://www.corn.org/products/sweeteners/#sthash.vEzgVkWU.dpuf
http://www.bio-economy.net/applications/applications_enzymes.html



Source: http://www.bccresearch.com
Starch slurry (water and starch) at pH6 with NaOH, and calcium (thermostability)
Temperature increased at 90°C, addition of enzyme for gelatinization and dissociation
Temperature decreased and stable until the desired dextrose equivalent DE (c.a. 8-12)

Optimum Conditions: 60°C and pH 7-9
Activators: Mg and Co - Inhibitor: Ca
Immobilized EC 5.3.1.5
in a Fixed Bed Reactor
Interest
: 10-20% cheaper than sucrose for the same sweetness power

Replacing sucrose in US
Amylose
Polymer of α-(1-4)-D-glycopyranosyl units
Amylopectin
Polymer of α-(1-4)-D-glycopyranosyl units with approximately 4% alpha-(1-6) branching
25%wt
n=300-600
75%wt
LIQUEFACTION
STARCH
DEXTRINS
GLUCOSE
SYRUPS
HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP
MALTOSE
SYRUPS
Enzyme
:
β-amylase
from barley or soy beans
Little crystallization due to low glucose content
Non-hygroscopic
42-55 % fructose content
α-amylase
from
Bacillus licheniformis
SACCHARIFICATION
pH=4.5
Avoid reversion reaction by optimization
Enhance efficiency with debranching enzyme
Hydrolysis of residues from non-reducing end of starch polymers and dextrins
Glucose content: 20-98% DE
Enzyme
:
Amyloglucosidase
from
Aspergillus niger
Maltose content: 40-60% DE
Glucose
Branched oligosaccharides
Malto-oligosaccharides
Gentio-oligosaccharides
Gluco-oligosaccharides
Trehalose
Oligosaccharides have
health benefits:
prebiotic effect
intestinal wellness
blood lipid profiles
non-reducing, non-cariogenic sugar
wide pH stability
cryoprotectant stability
Glucose syrup HFCS (42)
42% D-fructose
90% D-glucose 50% D-glucose
6% maltose
To combine Saccharification
and
Isomerization
in a single reactor
Ongoing Research on Glucose Isomerase
Lowering working pH to acidic conditions
Ca tolerant
D-xylose-ketol isomerase
EC 5.3.1.5
Coca-Cola , Pepsi
Continuous production,
Improved stability,
Absence of the biocatalyst in the product stream
The largest commercial application of immobilized enzyme:
500 tons of IGI manufactured annually : 7% of total enzymes market
10 million tons of HFCS per year
Increasing working temperature
Big saving in costs
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