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Science and Technology on the Environment
Transcript of Science and Technology on the Environment
oversimplifies the social dimension of environmental problems
one kind of consequence of the operation of:
institutional arrangements Overall pattern:
More and comparatively richer rich
Fewer in the middle with slowly eroding living standards for the middle class
More and comparatively poorer poor Theory: If the Earth only absorbed radiation from the sun without giving back an equal amount of heat, our planet would continue to grow warmer each year until the oceans and lakes boiled. First proponents: Harold Johnston, and Nobel Prize winners F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina Toxic waste- have toxins which are substances that are poisonous even in very small amounts. Can be carcinogen(causes cancer), mutagen(causes genateic damage) or teratogen (causes fetus malformation). a mode of human development in which resource use aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come.
the term was used by the Brundtland Commission, and according to it, sustainable development: is the "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.". needs, in particular those of the world's poor, to which over-riding priority should be given
limitations, imposed by the state of technology and social organizations, on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs. Simple living by changing the patterns of consumption, reduce pollution and environmental disruption.
Use of appropriate technological means that match the needs of people.
Have less complex and less resource intensive technologies, less intensive capitalization required for production. It was found that increasing population among nations increased CO2 production According to biologist Paul Ehrlich & energy scientist John Holdren: The impact (I) of any population or nation on environment & ecosystems is illustrated by 1. Population size & growth 2. Institutional arrangements 3. Cultural values and belief systems I = P x A x T where:
A= level of affluence
T= damage done by particular technologies Major Opponents of the theory Reid Bryson - worldwide climate over the past 40 years is getting colder, not warmer
James Goodrich - data used by the greenhouse theorists is relatively new, and the samples are not large enough to predict long-term trends
Kenneth Watt - data used are from overly heated urban cities absorb infrared energy radiating from earth's surface Chlorofluorocarbons Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxides Chlorofluorocarbons main threat to the ozone layer
broken down by sunlight in the stratosphere and produces chlorine
over time, a chlorine atom can destroy 10000 ozone molecules The harmful chemicals take 7 to 10 years to rise to the stratosphere, and once there, they persist for 75-100 years. What can be done? Use of giant lasers to cleanse the atmosphere - atmospheric processing by Dr. Thomas H. Stix
Ozone replacement - produce bulk ozone and propel it to the stratosphere in rockets, aircraft, or balloons
Placing solar-powered ozone generator
Lofting lumps of frozen ozone into the stratosphere Serious concerns in industry and environment in less developed countries concern about the relationship between resource use, population growth and technological advancement
•concern about the production and distribution of industrial and energy resources amongst the less developed and more developed nations
•implicit concern about economic dominance and ideological differences
•concern about environmental degradation and ecological destruction. Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (R.A. 9003) Waste Mangement Methods: Landfills-burying waste to dispose it off.
Incineration-solid oraganic wastes are subjected to combustion to convert them into residue and gaseous products.
Recycling method-collection and reuse of waste materials. The most common materials recycled are aluminum, copper, steel and polyethylene.
Biological reprocessing-organic materials such as plant, food scraps and paper products are recovered through composting to decompose the organic matter.
Energy recovery- reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost/fertilizer production of the organic material via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured path. An act providing for an ecological waste management program creating the necessary institutional
mechanisms and incentives, declaring certain acts prohibited and providing penalties. Increasing Social Inequality