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Copy of World War I

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Anwar Alsharif

on 13 August 2014

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Transcript of Copy of World War I

What were the causes of World War I?
World War I
The Assassination of
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
the "Spark"
On August 1st, 1914

Germany (ally with Austria Hungary)

declares war on
Russia (ally w/ Serbia)
Germany (ally with Austria Hungary)

then declares war
France.

The "Great War" begins
Militarism
Alliance
Imperialism
Nationalism
Question 1

Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Alliances Archduke Ferdinand Gavrib Princip Central Powers Allied Powers Kaiser Wilhelm II Woodrow Wilson
Ch. 24 The Roaring Twenties
Key Vocabulary:
How an assassination in Europe sparked the deadliest war the world had ever seen. You will find out how the United States was drawn into the fighting and had to choose between helping France and Britain or remaining isolated from world conflict. You will learn about new battle strategies and technology, the war effort at home, and how the war came to an end with the Treaty of Versailles.
Quiz: ______________ Propaganda Project: ___________
Test: ______________
Essential Questions for the Chapter:
Question 5

Mobilize patriotism Selective Service Act of 1917 Espionage Act 1917 Sedition Act 1918 CPI Schenck v. US propaganda war bonds/liberty bonds National War Labor board

Question 6

Communists reparations Armistice Treaty of Versailles Influenza Epidemic Wilson’s 14 points League of Nations
Question 3

Stalemate 1st /2nd battle of Marnes Communists Eastern Front Western Front Verdun Somme River Saint- Miihiel

Question 4

Lusitania Sussex Zimmerman Note
Question 2
trench warfare tanks machine guns poisonous gas airplanes German U- boats
1. What were the causes of World War I?

2. What new technologies did armies in WWI use?

3. What events challenged the United States neutrality and caused the US to enter the war?

4. What were major battles of the war?

5. What steps did the United States take to mobilize for war?

6. How did World War I come to an end and what were the costs?
Next Chapter
This Chapter:
1914-1920
Pgs 719-743
Ch. 23 World War I
Last Chapter
Ch. 22- American as a World Power
Is about:
Years: 1914-1918

Location: Europe
(Mainly France)

Allied Powers
vs
Central Powers
France
Great Britain
Russia
Italy
United States
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
to build up strong forces to prepare for war- symbol of strength


idea of "Social Darwinism- the stronger nations will survive.
A friendship between nations to protect one another, with a signed contract.
you should know this definition!

Propaganda
-
information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread

examples:
exaggeration
sensationalism
cartoons
encourage stereotypes of other nations
foster rivalries
June 28, 1914
After
Austria-Hungary
annexed an area of land that had belonged to the
Slavs, Serbia
reacted.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of
Austria
was taking a trip to Sarajevo with his wife Sophie.

While riding through the streets, 7
Serbian nationalist
assassins attack

Ferdinand and his wife.
Machine Guns
Poisonous Gas
What new technologies were used in warfare in World War I?
U-Boats/Submarines
Grenades/Mines
Trench Warfare
Tanks
DO NOW
Answer the following questions in your notes:



1. What were the two names of the sides during WW1?

2. What were the four MAIN causes of WW1?
Airplanes
- is defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches
-soldiers ate, slept, and fought from a network of miles of dug trenches for months at a time

-Conditions: cold, wet, muddy= breeding ground for disease and lice

-"No Man's Land"
- a high powered rifle that would require a gun crew of 2-4 people created by Hiram Maxim
Pros
could fire 400 to 600 rounds per minute (equal to about 80 soldiers w/ rifles)

Cons
Guns often jammed
Were extremely heavy (80-120 pounds)
Would overheat and become inoperative
- Tanks were used later in the war (late 1916 early 1917)
-were largely used to break enemy lines/ run through barbed wire
Pros
bullet proof
used to forge enemy lines
soldiers used them as protection/walked behind them
Cons
slow: 4mph
Could only fit 3 soldiers at most
would often get stuck in the mud
-First used by the French, then developed by Germans
, usually chlorine, later Phosgene and Mustard gas were used.
-Fired upon soldiers in the trenches.
-PG considered "uncivilized" prior to WWI
-Chlorine gas once inhaled would destroy the victim's respiratory organs and bring on choking attacks
-mustard gas was odorless and would cause blisters inside and out on victims
-accounted for many deaths, early in the war
-hand held bombs usually detonated by impact or timed
-largely used in trench warfare

-bombing "parties" consisted of 7-9 men and would attack a trench by first throwing a grenade
Telegraph
invented by Samuel Morse
-countries communicated during the war with the telegraph
Pigeons
-extremely reliable way of sending messages
-over 100,000 were used
-a success rate of 95%
Airplanes were used for spying and fighting.

"Bombers" were pilots who would toss a bomb out the side of the plane with their hands.


They had to fly low to the ground which was dangerous because they could be shot down by enemy rifles
-One strategy of England was to try and "starve" Germany into surrender by "Blockading" ships that carried human needs.
-
Germany used "U-Boats" to sink any ships coming to England
-U boat = Underwater boat
= Submarines
-lightly armored- had to attack by surprise
-land mines were the most feared weapon you would lose limbs
Conclusion:

Increased Industrialization and new technology
= more soldiers
new weapons and tactics of war
= more soldiers
greater casualties
= more soldiers


What happens to the soldiers?
What events challenged the United States
neutrality
and caused the US to enter the war?
1917
1914
1915
Sinking of the Lusitania
Sinking of the
Sussex
Pres. Woodrow Wilson declares that US will remain "
neutral
"
Why?
1. It was largely seen as a "European Conflict"

2. Impact of Immigration on America= many different cultures in America

3. Civil War Vet's don't want more war

4. American business had interest in staying neutral to keep making money (they can trade with both sides)
Means...America continues to trade
and
make money off of both sides
.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
British try to blockade ships from trading with Germany, they stop trade ships as well as food ships.


In response- The Germans used "U-boats" to sink any ships coming to England in an effort to cut off supplies to England.
In May 1915, a German U-boat torpedoes a British passenger ship, the Lusitania, killing 1200 people, including 128 Americans.
In March 1916, another passenger ship is sunk.
the
Sussex
- a French Ship.


80 casualties are American.
Germany agrees to
stop attacking
"non-military ships."
Zimmerman Note
1916
Germans needed to keep the US out of the war in Europe.

In March 1917, American newspapers get hold of a "secret" telegram sent from German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico.

Goal: Get Mexico to declare war on U.S.
April 6, 1917
Question 4
What steps did the United States take to
Mobilize
for war?
the 4
M
's

Men and Women
Money
Materials=
Production
Minds
M
en & Women

M
oney

M
aterials

M
inds

= men were needed as soldiers to fight in the war.
= money for supplies and troops were needed to fight
=weapons and food were needed for soldiers
People needed to be influenced to support the war.

One way:

Propaganda Posters
Solution to the need for soldiers=

Selective Service Act of 1917
required all males between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for the draft. Accounted for 3 million men to be drafted into war, including African Americans.
Women and War-
over 30,000 women volunteered as nurses and worked other jobs near the front lines.

They were not included in the draft.
Labor Shortage (Effect)
Millions of men in the military caused a
labor shortage
. Workers were needed in factories to make supplies.
Factory owners turned to:
1) Women
and
2) African Americans
Congress raised taxes and encouraged the buying of
war bonds= bonds purchased that could later be cashed in for a return on your money
(basically a loan to the gov't).
National War Labor Board:


Was created to head the production of tanks, weapons,
planes, leather for uniform.
Food Administration:
Herbert Hoover was chosen to head the FA.

Goal: to ensure adequate food and supplies for soldiers.
Effect:
Nicknamed
"Liberty Bonds"
these efforts
helped finance the war by raising 21 billion dollars.


Answer the following question in your notes:
1. What do you think it means when a country "mobilizes for war?"
Quiz

1. What were the two sides in WW1?

2. Name one technological advance of the WWI era and what it was used for.

3. Name one event that threatened US neutrality and made us enter the war.
Question 5
What were the major battles of WW1?
First Battle of Marne
Marne
Verdun
Battle of Tannenberg
Battle of Verdun
Tanneberg
Battle of the Somme
Somme
Battle of Jutland
Jutland
Second Battle of the Marne
2nd Marne
Western Front
Eastern Front
Two "Fronts" of the War
Date:
September 5- 12, 1914
Location:
Marne River, France (Eastern Front)
People:
French and British Expeditionary Forces vs. Germans

Outcome:
Allied Victory against the German Army
Significance:
This battle effectively ended the month long German offensive that opened the war and had reached the outskirts of Paris

British and French armies forced the German army to abandon its push on Paris and retreat, setting the stage for four years of trench warfare on the Western Front
Date:
August 26-30, 1914
Location:
East Prussia (Modern day Poland) Eastern Front
People:
Russian First and Second Armies vs. Germany Eighth Army
Outcome:
Central Victory
Significance:
Russia's worst defeat in WW1, Russian army never fully recovered from this battle
Date:
February 21- December 18, 1916
Location:
Northeastern France, Western Front
People:
German General Von Falkenhayn wanted to make "France bleed" by attacking a narrow stretch of land that had historic sentiment to the French- Verdun
Outcome:
Verdun resulted in 698,000 battlefield deaths ( 363k French, 336k German), and average of 70,000 deaths for each of the ten months of battle. It was the longest and most devastating battle of WW1
Date:
July 1, 1916- November 1, 1916
Location:
France (Western Front)
People:
English and French vs. Germans
Significance/Outcome:
symbolized the horrors of warfare- by the end of the battle the British had suffered 420k casualties, French 200k, and Germans 500k.
Date:
May 31- June 1, 1916
Location:
Jutland, Denmark (Naval Battle)
People:
British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet vs. Germany Navy's High Seas Fleet
Outcome/ Significance:
The greatest naval battle of the First World War. Jutland had the ingredients to be a great British naval victory- but the end result was much less clear-cut. Although it was the only major naval battle of WW1, it became the largest sea battle in naval warfare history- in terms of the number of battleships engaged.
Date:
July 5- August 16, 1918
Location
: Marne River, France (Western Front)
People:
French, British, US vs German
Significance/Outcome:
Turning point of the war on the Western Front. It began as a German offensive attack but ended as a successful Allied counter-attack. This marked the last real attempt by the Central Powers to win WW1. Allied Casualties were: French 95k, British 13k, United States 12K. For the Germans: 168k.
League of Nations
Armistice
Treaty of Versailles= Official End of WW1
Wilson's Plan for Peace
"Fourteen Points"
Germans defeated at Saint Mihiel
Russia pulls out of WW1
How did the war come to an end?
Beaten down from war- Russia signs the Treaty
of Brest-Litovsk
- a peace agreement
with Germany in 1918.
Meanwhile in Russia- a
Communist Revolution
is going on. The
Bolsheviks
- a group of communists led by
Vladmir Lenin,
overthrows the Czar of Russia.
Importance:
This closes the "Eastern Front"
Fresh from training,
General Pershing's American Expeditionary Forces
help defeat the
Germans
on the border of France and Germany.

Germany
is worn out from war.
Wilson's Plan for
"Peace without Victory"
began in January of 1917 and became known as
"Wilson's Fourteen Points".
Wilson's Fourteen Points wanted to address the causes of WW1. (Think Back to "MAIN".)
Main Points Which cause?
1. Focused on limiting the size of armies

2. Ending Secret Alliances

3. Encouraging Free Shipping

4. Resolve colonial claims/border disputes

5. Create a
League of Nations- the League's goal would be to settle international disputes without war

Armistice
is an agreement to stop fighting
Why did Germany agree to stop fighting?
1.
Germany's Allies (Russia)
started to pull out of war.
2.
Germany's soldiers
were dwindling= deaths/captures
3.
The situation in Germany
was in disarray= starvation, labor strikes
Did you know?

Veteran's Day is celebrated on November 11th every year because that is when Germany agreed to stop fighting in WW1.
Henry Cabot
Lodge led opposition


Wanted to keep America
independent from Europe



Did not want to get drawn
into other nation’s conflicts
Opposition to League of Nations
Wilson went coast to coast trying to create support for League of Nations
Wilson’s Last Battle
Wilson
USA
Clemenceau
France
Orlando
Italy
George
Great Britain
Big Four (Great Britain, Italy, France, USA)
Treaty of Versailles
Who went?
Main Points of the Treaty
1.
B lame
Germany had to say it started the war (War Guilt Clause)
2.
R eparations
 Germany had to pay for damage of war.

($33 Billion)
3.
A rmy
 Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force and army was limited  
4.
T erritory
Germany lost (land) in Europe and colonies
The main points of Treaty of Versailles "
BRAT
"
GOAL: PUNISH GERMANY
Europe after WW1
Congress Blocks the Treaty
US Congress needed
2/3rds of Senate to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.

Wilson campaigned around the country to try and gain support for the Treaty and the League of Nations.

Congress never
agreed to it. US never joined the League of Nations.
Question 6 Continued
$ Money $
Loss of Life
German Resentment towards Europe
Spanish Influenza
What were the costs of WW1?
*The resentment that allowed Adolph Hilter to rise to power and WW2

Mobilized

Wounded

Dead

Missing POW
Dead%

Wounded %

Missing & POW %
5,000,000 Allied Deaths
3,500,000 Central Deaths


20,000,000 Wounded
"Lost Generation"
Allies spent $145 Billion
Central Powers spent $63 Billion
$30 Billion in property destroyed= mainly in France
Flu kills 30 million people worldwide starting in 1918
Above all else- Germans were angered over the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany entered a severe economic depression over the next decade.
Why be Neutral?
Why do we need an Ally?
First example in Europe:
Congress of Vienna 1815.
5 European countries unify against N_______.

Help the balance of power!
Who is on whose side?
(Allied, Ally)
A "Chain Reaction" happened!
Industrial Revolution
Imperialism
Present "Needs"
More guns,
More guns,
More guns...
to protect colonies

More resources,
More resources,
More resources...
to make $$$$$$$$$$
extreme pride in your nation/ally encouraged
Allies needed
Start here
Why?
A "Chain Reaction" happened!
Industrial Revolution
Imperialism
Present "Needs"
More guns,
More guns,
More guns...
to protect colonies

More resources,
More resources,
More resources...
to make $$$$$$$$$$
Allies needed
Start here
Why?
Enemy's trenches
Enemy's trenches
Enemy's trenches
Enemy's trenches
Enemy's trenches
Communication
Cher Ami
Full transcript