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The Evolution of Airplanes

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Peter Leary

on 4 September 2012

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Transcript of The Evolution of Airplanes

The History of Airplanes The Wright Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright flew the largest glider ever flown in Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, 1901 with a 22 foot wingspan. These flights were both piloted and unmanned. The previous year, they had successful flights with a glider boasting a 17 foot wingspan. http://0.tqn.com/d/inventors/1/0/V/7/1/WB1911Glider.jpg In 1903, the Wright brothers made true history by creating the world's first know powered airplane. It only had one seat for the pilot, but had various mechanisms to kept it in the air. This was the first change from glider to plane. The Wright Flyer http://images.google.com/imgres?q=the+wright+flyer&hl=en&safe=active&biw=1440&bih=698&tbm=isch&tbnid=Wn_UE5G6po64WM:&imgrefurl=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/wright/flye-nf.html&imgurl=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/wright/images/flye-lotech.gif&w=465&h=408&ei=taI_UNiSMom09gST-ICQDg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=631&vpy=154&dur=2403&hovh=210&hovw=240&tx=102&ty=116&sig=117198512636049093789&page=1&tbnh=158&tbnw=180&start=0&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:78 On September 17, 1911, Calbraith Rodgers leaves from Sheepshead Bay, NY to fly across the U.S. In a span of 84 days of flight, he crashes more than 70 times. The total flying time is around 3 days, 10 and a half hours, when he lands in Long Beach, California. Throughout these crashes, he had to replace almost every piece of the plane! During the time of World War One and after, demand and funds for aircraft increases greatly, from about 1914- 1920. In 1915, the United States congress charters a federal agency, National Advisory for Aeronautics. This will help aviation research in the U.S. http://flymetothemoon.us/content/NACA_seal.jpg http://hugojunkers.pytalhost.com/_aircraft_/j4_a1.jpg The Junkers J4 is introduced by a German professor named Hugo Junkers. It is the first all metal airplane, composed of duralumin, a lightweight aluminum alloy. This is the type of plane Germany needed for the War. Passenger transportation by aircraft is introduced in Europe, 1919. These flights mainly run from London to Paris and back, but some others were there as well. In the time period from 1925-1926, a huge invention is introduced. It is called an air-cooled radial engine, that is very lightweight. This opens many opportunities for planes to be developed larger, stronger, and faster http://cdn.dipity.com/uploads/events/5a922d4215774b9989bf13f5cf7be7f8_1M.png http://www.stuartslondon.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Charles-Lindbergh.jpg On May 21, 1927 Charles Lindbergh makes the first flight across the Atlantic Ocean, non-stop, for 3,600 miles. Then there is a drastic change heading into World War Two. Douglas brings in the new twin-engine, twelve passenger, DC-1. It is designed by an aeronautical engineer: Arthur Raymond. http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/golden-age-of-flight3.jpg During WWII, the Dc-1 was used by almost every country participating. It had a great range, great altitude, and was very fast, so it was perfect for reconnaissance. http://www.flyaoamedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Initial-Take-Off1.jpg http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/30/103530-004-FADEBA28.gif http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Commercial_Aviation/UnitedAirlines/Tran16G1.jpg Boeing introduces the first modern commercial airline in February 1933, with the 247. It is a twin-engine, 10 passenger monoplane, with a smooth take off, and retractable wheels for lessened drag. Jet Engines in 1937, by Britain's Frank Whittle http://www.kilroywashere.org/09-Images/Woody/Turbo-RollsRoyce-final_files/image003.jpg Whittle's Jet Engine By Peter Leary THE END. Much innovation is fueled by World War II, from 1939-1945; The British develop the first fully-functional radar that gives the ability to detect airplanes, created just in time for the Battle of Britain. Germany produces the first Jet fighter: the ME 262. Finally, the British also invents the ILS, or Instrument Landing System, for landing in sub-par conditions. Captain Charles Yeager (U.S. Air Force Pilot) breaks the sound barrier on October 14, 1947, whilst he pilots the Bell X-1. http://www.wired.com/images_blogs/thisdayintech/2009/10/yeager.jpg In 1969, the most successful aircraft ever is produced; The Boeing 747. http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/gallery/images/commercial/747-06.jpg Northrop Grumman develops the B-2 Bomber, with a unique "flying" wing shape. It is not made of metal, but rather composite materials, so it can't be detected on radar. http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_RoKbyf5q51w/S_kwGBg_aMI/AAAAAAAAAoM/TX2OcMn4ImU/s1600/B-2_Spirit.jpg During 1996-1998, American and Russian flight research joins together with NASA to develop a supersonic airliner based off of the Tu-144LL (pictured) designed for the twenty-first century. http://www.avsim.com/pages/0105/bearcave/tupolev_tu144_02.jpg The Future of The Aircraft NASA begins research for "greener" aircraft. I believe most future evolutions of all technology will involve alternative energy, or the use of less energy, like these planes. NASA has produced these designs, supposedly to use 50% less fuel. http://i.space.com/images/i/14952/i02/nasa-future-airplanes-vision-planes.jpg The final prediction I have for the future of aircraft is downward-tilted nose cones. As airplanes continue to tolerate higher speeds, they need some design to limit lift, so they don't lose control. This will keep the plane fast and on track. http://psipunk.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/NASA-Aircraft-Skin.jpg http://www.public-domain-image.com/vehicles/airplane/slides/airplanes-jets.jpg http://www.public-domain-image.com/vehicles/airplane/slides/blue-angels-airplanes.jpg http://www.old-picture.com/american-history-1900-1930s/pictures/Starting-airplane.jpg http://danielbortzdotcom.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/667airplane.jpg http://www.bwallpapers.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Airplanes_thumb.jpg
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