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Epilepsy

Writ 109HP final presentation
by

Kaytee Ison

on 11 June 2013

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Transcript of Epilepsy

Kaytee Ison
Epilepsy
What Is Epilepsy?
Types of Epileptic Seizures
Risk Factors
Diagnosis
Causes
Treatment
What To Do
A neurological condition of having spontaneous occurring seizures.
Affects the nervous system
"Epilepsy" does not indicate anything about the cause, type, or severity.
Produces seizures that affect a variety of mental and physical functions
Risk factors of epilepsy. http://health-fts.blogspot.com/2012/02/epilepsy.html
Seizures are symptoms of abnormal brain function
When a person has more than one seizure
- some may be nonepileptic
Different types of seizures can call for different responses
Writing 109HP
History
400 B.C.: Greek physician, Hippocrates, writes On the Sacred Disease
1859-1906: beginning of the modern medical era of epilepsy under the leadership of John Hughlings Jackson, Russell Reynolds, and Sir William Richard Gowers
1912: creation of phenobarbital (Luminal), the oldest anti-epilepsy drug in common clinical use
More History
1968: The Epilepsy Foundation of America is founded. Now known as the Epilepsy Foundation
1990: Laws forbid people with epilepsy to marry or become parents. Some states permitted sterilization. Congress passed the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
2000: "Curing Epilepsy: The Promise and the Challenge," organized by the Epilepsy Foundation of America
Sets goals treatment including: prevention and cure of epilepsy; no seizures or side effects for those with the condition; and finding ways to prevent epilepsy acquired from injury, infection, or errors of development.
Usually unidentifiable causes.
Grand Mal
Unconsciousness
convulsions
muscle rigidity
Primary Generalized
Secondary Generalized
Start as partial seizures
Patient then has muscle rigidity
Convulsions - may start at one side of the body
unconsciousness
Grand Mal
Partial Seizures
Simple
- Motor: rigidity, spasms,
head-turning
- Sensory: sensations affecting
either the vision, hearing, smell
taste, or touch
- Psychological: memory and
emotional disturbances
Complex: awareness is impaired
- involuntary, but coordinated
movements
Absense
Short loss of consciousness
Most often occurs in children
Stare blankly
Unaware that they are having a seizure
May occur multiple times in a day
Myoclonic
Sporadic jerking movements
Often described as brief electrical shocks
May be violent
- Result in dropping or
involuntarily throwing objects
Clonic
Repetitive, rhythmic jerking movements that involve both sides of the body at the same time.
Tonic
Characterized by rigid muscles
Atonic
Sudden and general loss of muscle tone
Often results in a fall
Medication
Most common treatment
Works for about 2/3 of people with epilepsy
Dosages may be adjusted
Ketogenic
Diet
High in fat and low in carbs, allowing body to burn fat instead of sugar (ketogenesis)
Results in changes in the brain that reduces/eliminates seizures
Recommended when medications fail or cause uncomfortable side effects
Vagus Nerve
Stimulation
"Pacemaker for the brain
Sends electrical pulses to the brain through vagus nerve
Surgery
Brain is scanned. MRI or PET
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Check for tumors, clots, and find the area that's being affected
Perform surgery on the area
Medical history - especially family history
Series of tests such as:
CT, MRI, blood tests, electrolytes, liver and
kidney function
Electroencephalogram
Nonepileptic Seizures
They are episodic, sudden events
Unrelated to abnormal electrical activity in the brain
Tend to be longer than epileptic seizures
Only occur when awake
AEDs do not stop them
May occur in people who have epileptic seizures
Considered to be of psychological origin
In The Event Of A Seizure
1. Loosen clothing around the neck
2. Do not try to restrain the person
3. Do not place anything in the mouth
4. Remove sharp objects that are around
5. Lay the person on his or her side
6. Don't leave the person alone
7. Call 911 if the seizure lasts longer than
5 minutes, another one begins, the
person cannot be awakened, or he/she
has another medical condition
The tonic and clonic phases of a seizure. http://www.netterimages.com/images/vpv/000/000/005/5995-0550x0475.jpg
Sources
Epilepsy. W. RUSSELL BRAIN, D.M. (Oxon.), F.R.C.P. (Lond.). http://pmj.bmj.com.proxy.library.ucsb.edu:2048/content/11/114/145
Epilepsy.com Carol Camfield, M.D. / Robert S. Fisher, M.D., Ph.D. http://www.epilepsy.com/101/ep101_epilepsy
Dr. Fisher MD, Professor of Neurology and Director of the Stanford Epilepsy Center
Diagnosing epilepsy. EEG graph. http://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Programs-and-Services/Epilepsy-Program/Diagnosing-Epilepsy/
Epilepsy Foundation of America. http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org/aboutepilepsy/
Thursday, February 16, 2012. Epilepsy. 2008-07-23. Written by Tina Shih, MD and Daniel Lowenstein, MD. http://health-fts.blogspot.com/2012/02/epilepsy.html
AEDs
- http://www.ataglanceseries.com/pharmacology/fig16-1.asp
- http://www.epilepsy.com/epilepsy/antiepileptic_drugs
- http://www.webmd.com/epilepsy/guide/types-of-seizures-their-symptoms
Ketogenic Diet http://www.thedaisygarland.org.uk/images/hero-keto.jpg
Nonepileptic seizures: http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org/aboutepilepsy/seizures/Non-epileptic-seizures.cfm
Post-ictal period. http://www.netterimages.com/images/vpv/000/000/005/5995-0550x0475.jpg
Post-ictal Period
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