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Motivation In Learning & Teaching

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Mary Jo Snow

on 11 November 2014

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Transcript of Motivation In Learning & Teaching

Motivation In Learning & Teaching
What Is Motivation?
Goal Orientation
Beliefs & Self-Perceptions
Interests, Curiosity, Emotions & Anxiety
"an internal state that arouses, directs, & maintains behavior"
1. Behavioral Choices
2. Getting Started
(vs. Procrastination)
3. Level of Involvement
4. Persist
vs. Giving Up
5. Thoughts & Feelings while performing the activity
Motivation: 5 Basic Questions
Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation
Traits & States
Traits: Individual Characteristics
States: A Temporary Situation
Motivation at any given time is a combination of trait & state
Intrinsic Motivation:
human tendency to seek out & conquer challenges as we pursue personal interests & exercise our capabilities.
Extrinsic Motivation:
Locus of Causality
reason for acting
motivation associated with activities that are their own reward
motivation created by external factors (e.g., rewards, punishment)
We can be motivated by aspects of each at the same time.
Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs
5 Approaches to Motivation
- analysis of (extrinisic) incentives, rewards, & punishments
Social Cognitive
- need for (intrinsic) self-actualization, self-determination, sense of competence, self-esteem
- regulated by (intrinsic) thinking -- plans, goals, schemas, expectations, attributions
- expectancy x value theories; cost; individual's expectation of reaching a goal & the value of that goal to him/her & cost involved (intrinsic & extrinsic)
- maintain identity & interpersonal relations within the community (intrinsic)
Deficiency Needs
Being Needs
helping others to achieve self-actualization
people don't always function this way
-may deny themselves lower needs to achieve higher needs
-direction may vary back & forth
not universal - may be cultural differences
situations - may cause variations (e.g., war)
Deficiency Needs
-when these needs are satisfied, the motivation for fulfilling them decreases
Being Needs
-when met, do not cease; motivation increases to seek further fulfillment; never completely filled
Self-Determination Theory
to feel competent & capable
to have choices & sense of control over our lives
We all need:
to be connected to others
autonomy & control
More simply...
Benefits of
Self-Determination in the Classroom:
interest & curiosity
sense of competence
conceptual learning
school attendance
use of self-regulated learning strategies
psychological well-being
preference for challenge
Need for Autonomy:
central to self-determination
the desire to have our own wishes determine our actions
(not external rewards or pressures)
Controlling Environments
tend to undermine
student motivation
all events have 2 aspects -- controlling & informational
Cognitive Evaluation Theory:
Supporting Self-Determination & Autonomy in the Classroom:
allow (& encourage) students to make choices
help students plan actions to accomplish self-selected goals
hold students accountable for consequences of their choices
provide rationale for limits & rules
acknowledge that negative emotions valid reactions to teacher control
use noncontrolling, positive feedback
an outcome or attainment an individual is striving to accomplish
Goal Setting: Improves Performance
directs attention to task & away from distractions
energizes effort
increases persistence
promotes development of new knowledge & strategies
Current Condition
Ideal Condition
(where we are)
(where we want to be)
Goals motivate us to reduce this discrepancy
Specific, elaborated, moderately difficult goals -- likely to be reached in near future
Enhance motivation & persistence
4 Goal Orientations
1. Mastery
2. Performance
3. Work-Avoidance
4. Social
(looking good)
What factors impact students' motivation to pursue goals?
specific goals
supportive social relationships
goal framing
goal acceptance
Beliefs About Knowing (Epistemological Beliefs)
simple set of facts vs. complex concepts & relationships
knowledge -- fixed vs. evolves over time
ability to learn -- fixed vs. changeable
gain knowledge quickly vs. time to develop
learning -- memorizing facts vs. integrated understandings
Beliefs About Ability
Entity View of Ability
Incremental View of Ability
stable, unchangeable trait
can be increased / improved
unstable & changeable
some people have more than others
amount is set
associated w/ greater motivation & learning
focus on problem-solving & strategies
tend to set performance avoid skills
failure is not devastating; indicates more work is needed
working hard or failing indicates low ability
avoid risk taking w/ grades
Beliefs About Causes & Control: Attribution Theory
how the individual's explanations, justifications, and excuses influence motivation
3 Dimensions of Attribution *
1. Locus
2. Stability
3. Controllability
* (effect expectancy & value)
(location of the cause)
Internal vs. External
related to self-esteem
related to emotions
related to future expectations
(pride, guilt, shame, anger)
(Can the person control the cause?)
Feeling In Control:
choose more difficult tasks
put out more effort
use better strategies
persist longer in school work
Beliefs About Self-Worth
Intrinsic Motivation
sense of efficacy
you need:
Strong Self-Efficacy:
attribute failures to lack of effort, misunderstanding directions, not studying enough (controllable factors)
Low Self-Efficacy:
attribute failures to lack of ability
focus on strategies to succeed next time
focus on own inadequacies
difficult to motivate
entity view + low self-efficacy
failures destroy motivation
Mastery Approach
Mastery Avoidance
Performance Approach
learning, progress, task-involved
avoid not mastering, don't make mistakes
Performance Avoidance
being superior, winning, highest grade
don't look stupid, don't be the worst / slowest
(finish fast & avoid work)
(can help or hinder learning)
(emphasize progress)
(link to intrinsic goals)
(realistic, reasonably difficult, meaningful)
Positive Classroom Environment:
focus on learning
Keep goals:
moderately challenging
connected to interests
Mastery-Oriented Students:
Failure-Avoiding Students:
value achievement & see ability as improvable; focus on mastery goals
set performance goals; hold fixed view of ability; feel only as smart as last test grade; never develop solid sense of self-efficacy
Failure-Accepting Students:
convinced problems are due to low ability; fixed view of ability; become depressed, apathetic, & helpless
use multiple outcome measures
set a number of goals
hold students accountable
Base Salaries (2013-14)
(for starting teachers -BS)
West Salem
La Crosse
Learned Helplessness
belief that events and outcomes in life are mostly uncontrollable
Causes 3 Types of Deficits:
Learned Helplessness
(difficult to reverse)
Encouraging Self-Worth
Emphasize abilities are not set, but are always improvable
Teach directly about learning goals vs. performance goals
Make classroom a place where failure is diagnostic - tells what needs to be improved
Encourage help seeking & help giving
Interest in School - related to:
depth of learning
Interest in School
declines from elementary to high school
boys have greater decline than girls
transition to middle school - tough
Personal (Individual) Interest
Situational Interest
seek new info
more positive attitude
(both lead to positive emotional responses, persistence, processing & remembering, higher achievement)
4 Phase Model of Interest Development
situational interest triggered
situational interest maintained
emerging individual interest
well-developed individual interest
(emotions play a big role in beginning)
Catching & Holding Students' Interests (math)
real-life problems
active participation (labs, projects)
- a tendency to be interested in a wide-range of areas
- naturally motivated to seek novelty, surprise, & challenge
Curiosity arises when attention is focused on a gap of knowledge
Building on Interests & Curiosity
relate content to student experiences
incorporate interests in lessons & discussions
humor, anecdotes, personal experiences (human side)
use original source materials (interesting)
create surprise & curiosity
emotional reactions
(e.g., fight or flight)
Human Emotions
physiological responses triggered by the brain
interpretations of the situation
cognitive assessments
conscious feelings
bodily responses
Constant Interplay:
Emotions -
Arousal & Anxiety
Arousal - both physiological & physical reactions
(brain wave patterns, heart rate, breathing rate)
(feel alert, wide awake, excited)
Simple Tasks
Higher Levels of Arousal are better
Complex Tasks
Lower Levels of Arousal are better
Learning & Info Processing
Cold Cognition
problem solving
Hot Cognition
Achievement Emotions
We are more likely to pay attention, learn about, & remember events, images, & readings that provoke emotional responses
Emotions & Learning
Emotions can affect learning by changing brain dopamine levels that influence long-term memory
Mastery Goals: enjoyment in learning, hope & pride
Performance-Approach Goals: pride
Performance-Avoidance Goals: anxiety, hopelessness, & shame
How Does Your Engine Run?????
Anxiety Interferes:
focusing attention
Coping Strategies:
Problem-Focused Self-Regulating Strategies
Emotion-Focused Strategies
Avoidance Strategy
(study schedule, notes, study location)
(relaxation exercises, talk to friend)
(cleaning, pizza)
(setting realistic goals)
Coping With Anxiety
use competition carefully
avoid individual performances in front of large group
clear instructions (less uncertainty)
remove some pressures from tests
alternatives to tests
teach self-regulation strategies
Motivation to Learn:
student tendency to find academic activities meaningful & worthwhile & to try to derive the intended academic benefits from them
includes quality of student's mental efforts
autonomy or authority
recognition - accomplishments
grouping practices
evaluation procedures
time in classroom
Problem-Based & Service Learning
Autonomy & Choice
Bounded Choice
- giving students a range of options
Cognitive Autonomy Support
- giving students opportunities to discuss strategies, problem solving approaches, & positions on issues
Individualized Personal Comments
Goal Structures
De-emphasize grades
Emphasize Learning
ability to complete tasks
block scheduling
Strategies to Encourage Motivation
4 Basic Conditions:
organized, free from disruptions
patient, supportive
work - challenging but reasonable
authentic learning tasks
Can I Do It?
Do I Want To Do It?
What Do I Need To Do To Succeed?
Do I Belong?
The Incredible 5 Point Scale
The Incredible 5 Point Scale
Deficiency Needs
Being Needs
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