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French Revolution+Napoleon

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 24 April 2017

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Transcript of French Revolution+Napoleon

5 Causes of the French Revolution




-taxes were high in France
-used to pay for many long wars+privileges of the nobility
-the responsibility of paying taxes fell mostly on the middle+lower class
-noble upper class would not negotiate, did not want to pay more taxes
-French society was divided into 3 groups

1st Estate=

2nd Estate=

3rd Estate=

-3rd Estate made up over 85% of the population
-3rd Estate owned 10% of the land
-3rd Estate paid 75% of the taxes
-King Louis XVI was a weak king
-never made a strong decision
-was more concerned with partying and hanging out with the rich than running his country
-was controlled by his wife, Marie Antoinette
-ignored problems in France and never listened to the concerns of his people
-the American Revolution took place between 1775-1781
-France allied themselves with the American colonies because...
-French soldiers+sailors aiding the Americans were encountered the ideas that Americans were fighting for
-inspired them, returned to France with these new ideas and beliefs
-political ideas from the Enlightenment fueled the French Revolution
-individualism+Lockean ideas encouraged the French people to challenge the monarchy
-these ideas also turned the French people on each other
Estates General
-in order to solve France's economic problems, a meeting of the 3 Estates was called in 1789
-Estates were tasked by King Louis XVI to come up with a solution to please all of the social classes
-each Estate would have representatives in the Estates General
-Strong turnout produced 1,201 delegates, including 291 nobles, 300 clergy, and 610 members of the Third Estate

National Assembly
-Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès and the 3rd Estate separated itself from the Estates General on June 10, 1789 to form the National Assembly

-claimed to represent "the People" and decided they would make the national decisions on their own

-invited the 1st+2nd Estates to join them, but would move forward without them if necessary

-Louis XVI ordered the closure of the Salle des États where the Assembly met to try and maintain control
Tennis Court Oath
- the Assembly moved their deliberations to a nearby indoor tennis court after Louis XVI closed the Salles de Etats building

-swore the Tennis Court Oath on June 20 saying they would not break up until they gave France a new constitution

-most members of the 1st Estate soon joined the National Assembly, along with 47 nobles of the 2nd Estate

-military moved into large numbers around Paris+Versailles, but the National Assembly was supported around the country
Storming the Bastille
-military presence made the people of Paris worried the king would attempt to destroy the National Assembly by force
-the Assembly went into permanent session to avoid being arrested
-Paris was plagued by mobs, riots, and widespread looting

-July 14, 1789 an angry mob of Parisians attacked the Bastille Prison
-the Bastille had a large weapons cache and the building represented the power of the monarchy
-8 guards+98 Parisians were killed in the fighting
-the French military commander in Paris and the mayor of Paris were also butchered by mobs
-first violent act of open rebellion, forced King Louis XVI to back down and withdraw the army from Paris
The Great Fear
-violence and theft became widespread across the country as the monarchy lost power

-the National Assembly was not strong or wealthy enough to replace the monarchy

-nobles were popular targets of violence and many were forced to flee France

-the French military had no authority and were essentially powerless

-peasants began arming themselves and forming their own small militias (civilian soldiers) all over France
Women's March on Versailles
-famine spread in the cities as the monarchy lost control of the farms in the countryside
-peasant farmers refused to ship their food to the city
-"Bread Riots" became rampant in Paris
-Louis XVI and his family fled to Versailles for protection
-rumors got out that the royal family had plenty of food and was hosting large parties for leaders from other nations

-October 1, 1789 about 7000 Parisian women armed themselves and marched on Versailles
-they demanded the royal family leave the palace and live in Paris
-stormed Versailles and killed 20 guards
-King Louis XVI and his family were forced to return to Paris
Anarchy in France
-August 10, 1789 the Assembly abolished feudalism entirely
-August 26, 1789 the Assembly published the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
-statement of principles...not a constitution
-there was no real, authoritative, or enforceable law+order to run the country

-the Estates could not agree on a working government that suited all sides
-the debt and poverty in France only got worse over the next few monthsas the National Assembly struggled to create a real, working government
Flight to Varennes
-King Louis XVI was concerned about what the National Assembly would do with him once they had a new constitution

-the Storming of the Bastille and Women's March proved the French people were not afraid to violently oppose the monarchy

-Louis XVI wanted to flee the country as many other French nobles had done

-June 20, 1791 king and his family dressed as peasants attempted to cross the border into Austria

-recognized at the village of Varennes, arrested and brought back to Paris
Constitution of 1791
-National Assembly ratified a new constitution on October 1, 1791
-formed a new govt. that was a "constitutional monarchy"

-the legislative branch+King Louis XVI never got along
-Louis XVI voted down anything the legislative branch tried to pass
-legislature had no power to tax the people or control the military
-legislature divided between radicals+moderates...govt. was on the verge of collapse by end of 1792
Counter-Revolutionary Wars
-other European kings feared what was happening in France
-wanted to crush the French Revolution
-Austria, Prussia, England, and the Netherlands all declared war on France in an attempt to show the weakness of the new French govt. and put Louis XVI back in power

-people in France became divided
-some supported the return of the King in order to protect France from invaders
-others rallied around the new govt.
-the French govt. instituted the Reign of Terror in order to maintain power
Reign of Terror
-the French govt. was worried about the support the King was getting due to the Counter-Revolution Wars
-created the Committee of Public Safety run by a lawyer named Maximilien Robespierre
-job was to hunt down and arrest royalists+opponents of the new govt.

-from 1793 to 1794 about 41,000 people were killed
-most were beheaded by the guillotine
-finally ended when the people rose up and demanded the execution of Robespierre
Guillotine the King
-before the Reign of Terror ended, the royal family would fall victim to the guillotine
-in January, 1793 Louis XVI was found guilty by the French govt. of "conspiring with France's enemies in attempt to bring down the national govt."
-Louis XVI+Marie Antoinette were beheaded on January 20
-all of Europe was outraged and shocked
The Directory
-the French govt continued to struggle with internal problems and foreign invasion

-the French Republic collapsed in 1795

-5 leading men from the legislative branch seized power and took control of France as "The Directory"

-threw out the Constitution and were immediately unpopular with the people
Maintaining Power
-many French people did not support the Directory
-what did the people fear about the Directory?

-in order to stay in power, the Directory refused to make peace with the countries fighting against France
-how did this help them keep power?
Whiff of Grape Shot
-on October 3, 1795-30,000 opponents of the Directory attempted to overthrow the govt.
-the only defense the Directory had was 5000 young troops under the command of 26 year old General________________________
-stopped the riot by firing "whiff of grapeshot" into the crowd
-declared a national hero and given command of the French army fighting in Italy
-Napoleon took control of the French army in Italy and proceeded to crush the Austrian military between 1796-1797
-Napoleon became very popular in France due to his victory over Austria
-in 1799 Napoleon had enough political power to become a member of the Directory
-he was not popular with the other members of the Directory, because everyone in France liked him the most
-the Directory managed to get Napo and his army shipped out of the country
Napoleon in Egypt
-the Directory feared Napo's popularity and ordered him to invade Great Britain-Napoleon refused (because he could do what he wanted) and decided to disrupt British operations in Egypt instead
-Napoleon fought British, Egyptian, and Ottoman forces in Egypt between 1798-1801
-was brutal towards the local population, killed many civilians, damaged the pyramids, and stole many ancient treasures
-damaged British operations in the Middle East and returned to France as a national celebrity
Napo on the Directory
Napoleon becomes Emperor
-in 1804 Napo discovered an assassination plot against him
-used this as an excuse to seize total control of the French govt
-declared himself emperor in 1804 and officially ended the French Revolution
-had total, absolute control over France

-was the French Revolution successful?
Napoleon's Background
-born on the island Corsica in 1769
-Italian ethnically, but France bought Corsica from Italy when Napo was only a year old...raised with French culture
-was raised Catholic and had 7 siblings (second oldest)
-close to both his parents, especially his mom
-received a good education and attended a French military academy
-graduated as an artillery officer at age 25
Napoleon's Rule
-Napoleon made several reforms as emperor
-created the metric system
-helped make peace between the Catholics+Protestants
-biggest reform was the Napoleonic Code
-The code did 4 things
1. Forbade privileges based on birth
2. Allowed freedom of religion (even to Jews)
3. Specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified
4. Made the laws of France equal for all and more easy to understand
Napoleonic Wars
-between 1803-1815 Europe would be embroiled in its 4th most devastating war (6,500,000 killed)
-the Napoleonic wars were a series of conflicts between France+allies against other powers in Europe over control of the continent
-the Napoleonic wars can be broken into 7 parts

1. Third Coalition 1803-1806
2. Fourth Coalition 1806-1807
3. Peninsular War 1808-1814
4. Fifth Coalition 1809
5. Invasion of Russia 1812
6. Sixth Coalition 1812-1814
7. 100 Days+Battle of Waterloo 1815
War of the 3rd Coalition
-Napoleon spent his time as emperor assembling the "Grande Armee" of 350,000 French troops
-also allied himself with Spain and Northern Italy

-Britain was worried about being invaded by France
-Russia+Austria allied with Britain because they did not like Napo's moves in central Europe
-October 1805=major British naval victory at Battle of Trafalgar ends the threat of French invasion

-Napo and the Grande Armee dominate on land
-Battle of Austerlitz was a major French victory
-Napo defeated combined army of Russians+Austrians
-9000 French casualties-----27,000 Russian+Austrian casualties
-French claim victory=Holy Roman Emp. destroyed and Confederation of Rhine created
War of the 4th Coalition
-Prussia was threatened by France having so much power over western+central Europe
-Prussia allied with Britain and Russia

-Prussia instigated a war by "accidentally" having troops enter the Conf. of the Rhine
-this backfired when France went on a lightning offensive into Prussian territory
-Napo captured Berlin and nearly all of Prussia's land

-Russia secretly made peace with France...betrayed Britain
Peninsular War
-in 1808 France attempted to invade and conquer Portugal
-betrayed their ally Spain and tried to conquer them at the same time
-Britain helped Spain+Portugal with money+guns

-Spain+Portugal rebels continued to fight for freedom using guerrilla warfare
-"guerrilla warfare"=small groups of combatants ambushes, sabotage, raids, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military

-constant warfare in Spain caused major problems for Napoleon until his downfall
War of the 5th Coalition
-Austria tried to take advantage of France's problems in the Peninsular War
-planned on taking back land against an ill-prepared France
-Great Britain sent money+guns, but Napo crushed Austria...again
-France gained important ports and was at its strongest
-controlled nearly all of western+central Europe
-Napoleon married Duchess Marie Louise of Austria to help secure a peace
Invasion of Russia--1812
-Russia was the last major power left on the continent
-Britain relied on coal from Russia to fuel their factories
-Russia was trying to start their own industrial revolution
-they needed the factory equipment made in Britain
-the Continental System was destroying the British+Russian economies

-Russia violated the Continental System

-Napo built an army of 685,000 French, Polish, Austrian, and Prussian troops
-Napoleon feared the Russians would strike into central Europe and had to enforce the Continental System

-Russian strategy was to attack the only the front of the French army, then retreat

-avoid a major battle

-Russian army made use of Scorched Earth tactics as they retreated

-forced Napoleon to pursue the Russian army deeper into the country

-the size of Russia would stretch the French supply lines, leaving them vulnerable

-Russians would then raid and cut off the supply lines behind the French

Continental System
-French Empire was the strongest on the continent...but still had no navy

-no way to attack/invade British homeland

-Napoleon put all of Europe was put under the "Continental System"

-Continental System was a full European embargo on all British goods

-embargo=complete stop of commerce and trade with a particular country

-starve Britain into submission through lack of resources

Napoleon takes Moscow...or what was left of it
-on Sept 14 the French arrived in Moscow
-civilians had fled, the city had been burned, supplies had been destroyed, and all the criminals were released in order to harass Napoleon
-Tsar Alexander I of Russia refused to negotiate with Napo
-Napoleon stayed in burned out Moscow a month but supplies ran low
-had to retreat because there was no chance for clear, real victory
The Retreat from Russia
-Napoleon decided to retreat in October...right as the brutal Russian winter began
-rain+snow wiped out roads and slowed the army to a crawl
-supply lines were cut by the Russian army
-peasants+soldiers constantly used guerrilla tactics on the Grande Armee
-thousands died due to frostbite, cold, starvation, disease
-only 27,000 French troops escaped Russia
-100,000 were captured+380,000 died
-one of the most disastrous military campaigns of all time
-beginning of the end for Napoleon
War of the 6th Coalition
-finally, everyone in Europe (Austria, Prussia, Russia, Portugal, Sweden, Spain) teamed up with Britain against Napoleon
-Napo was still hurting from his army literally being destroyed in Russia

-Battle of Leipzig on October 16-19, 1813 was the turning point for Europe
-600,000 soldiers from 9 countries fought in the battle
-Napo lost 44,000 men killed+36,000 as POWs
-Coalition took 54,000 casualties

-Paris was captured the by Coalition forces soon after
-Napoleon was dethroned and exiled in spring of 1814
-sent to the island of Elba
Napoleon in Elba
-his wife and children stayed in Austria
-Napoleon was able to become the leader of Elba
-in only 3 months on Elba he created a small navy and army, developed the mines, and implemented modern farming techniques
-European powers caught word of these actions and planned to exile him out into the middle Atlantic
-Napo used his small navy to escape and return to southern France in February, 1815
The Hundred Days
-a French military unit was sent by the new French king (Louis XVIII brother of Louis XVI) to capture Napoleon when he landed in southern France
-Napoleon approached the unit and said, "Here I am. Kill your Emperor, if you wish."
-Soldiers responded with, "Vive L'Empereur!" and marched with Napoleon to Paris
-Napoleon easily returned to power after a military coup
-King Louis XVIII fled and Napoleon quickly began to build an army of 200,000 men

-Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia agreed to each put 150,000 soldiers into the field to end his rule once and for all
Battle of Waterloo---June 18, 1815
-the Prussian+British armies began to close on Paris

-Napo decided to and destroy the armies one at a time

-first went after the weaker British

-marched north to attack them near the town of Waterloo, Belgium

-73,000 French vs 118,000 allies (29,000 British)

-the British and French pounded each other all day

-as a bigtime upset, the British held off French attacks until their allies arrived
-50,000 Prussians came to aid the British and destroyed the flank of the French army
-65,000 men were killed or wounded on a single day
-Napoleon's rule changed almost every aspect of European civilization and had far-reaching effects across the world

Napoleon's legacy can be broken down into 3 parts

1. Military

2. Liberalism

3. Politics

-concerns of the 3rd Estate were largely ignored

-Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, a Catholic priest, argued for the importance of the 3rd Estate saying, " "What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing. What does it want to be? Something."

-the 3rd Estate represented the overwhelming majority of the French people

-for the first time in history they realized their power

-negotiations broke down and the 3rd Estate planned to break away from the Estates General
-Grande Armee had used the strategy of extensive foraging and making quick attacks into enemy territory
-this strategy was effective because Europe had many good roads and everything is relatively close together
-6000 wagons were set to supply the Grande Armee

-Russia is HUGE

-had vast amounts of open, empty land...sometimes hundreds of miles between towns

-also had really bad dirt, narrow roads

-gravely underestimated the size of Russia and the peoples willingness to defense their homeland
Russian Strategy
Battle of Borodino
-Russian army stood and fought only one major battle

-Battle of Borodino occurred as the French closes in on Moscow...Russians wanted to delay Napoleon on his way to the capital

-September 7, 1812 the largest battle and bloodiest day of the French invasion of Russia

-Battle of Borodino involved more than 250,000 troops and resulted in at least 70,000 casualties

-pyrrhic French victory...a victory that inflicts a devastating loss in troops on the victor that the heavy toll negates any sense of achievement

-Napoleon was finally defeated
-exiled to the island of St. Helena...1,870 miles off of Africa
-died in of stomach cancer in 1821, age 51
-Russian army was nearly destroyed+the road to Moscow opened

-sucked Napoleon deeper into Russia just as winter was setting in

-Napoleon planned on spending the winter in Moscow

-the city was large and would have plenty of food to feed his army through the long winter

-Russia had other plans...

-Napoleon's wars greatly changed the governments/borders of the countries in Europe

-overall the Napoleonic Wars had 6 major effects...

1. France greatly diminished in power

2. Great Britain was secure and greatly expanded their colonial empire

3. Portugal and Spain were so weak that all their colonies in South+Central America rebelled and became free (Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, etc)

4. Russia became the most influential+powerful country in Eastern Europe

5. Austria-Hungary recovered and became the power in Central Europe

6. The foundation was laid for the creation of Germany and Italy
-the impact of the Napoleonic Wars changed the way all of Western civilization (Europe+the Americas) understood warfare

-there were five immediate and long reaching impacts of the Napoleonic Wars

1. Napoleon's tactics+strategy became the standard for all Western militaries

2. Emergence of "total war"...every aspect of society (civilians, soldiers, economics, industry, agriculture, etc) are necessary parts of the war effort

3. Increase in scope, size, and scale of wars...larger armies, more battles, higher casualties

4. Emergence of stronger national identities...Us vs Them/Our Society vs Their Society

5. Industry/technology would be tied into any future military success

-Liberalism is a political philosophy based on the ideas of liberty and equality

-support concepts such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, civil rights, democracy, separation of church+state, separation of government powers, etc...

-liberalism emerged from the Enlightenment and took hold in France with the French Revolution

-liberalism was what European monarchs feared and why the Counter-Revolutionary Wars had been fought

-Napoleon was a man of the people, so he represented the ideas+values of liberalism

-Napoleon spread liberalism of the French Revolution to other places in Europe when he invaded

-the people of Europe embraced these ideas of democracy, equality in courts, abolition of feudalism, reduction of the power of the Church, and constitutional limits on monarchs

-kings and queens remained in power in most European countries...but they now had to take into account the concerns of ALL the people, not just nobles
-after Napoleon had been defeated, the European countries wanted to establish a plan for long-term peace

-a conference of ambassadors from European countries involved in the Counter-Revolutionary+Napoleonic Wars was called in Vienna, Austria

-the goal was to restore old boundaries and resize the main European powers so they could balance each other off and remain at peace

-members or the Congress of Vienna limited the nationalism+liberalism

-the liberal values of the Enlightenment and French Revolution were blamed for the destabilizing of Europe and the Napoleonic Wars

-many ambassadors felt that the rights+freedoms of the people would have to be sacrificed for a stable and long lasting peace

-the monarchies would remain in Europe...although not as powerful as they had been before

-the focus was on creating a "Balance of Power"

-peace+security is enhanced when military strength is distributed so that no one country is strong enough to dominate all others

-France lost all their conquered land...Prussia, Russia, and Austria were made strong

-Europe would not see a major war for nearly 100 years
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