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Philosophy Summary

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Mea Ekroos

on 10 December 2012

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Transcript of Philosophy Summary

Plato Philosophy of mind Main Branches Philosophers Summaries Ethics Dualism Sub-branches Subsub-branches Monism Descartes Locke Hume Physicalism Idealism Mind and body two separate things Socrates Meditations wittgenstein Kant Aristotle The Sophists Meta-ethics Substance dualism Normative ethics Epiphenomenalism Property dualism Non-reductive physicalism Practical ethics Predicate dualism Mind-body
dualism Mental causation
dualism Interactionism Parallelism Epiphenomenalism Non-reductive physicalism Occasionalism Deontrology Divine command ethics Kantian ethics Cosequentalist Ethics explanation things


stuff Ethical egoism Utilitarianism Virtue Ethics Kant’s Transcendental Idealism Behaviorism The identity theory Functionalism Subsubsub-branches Republic Freud Marx Hegel How this philosopher
is connected to
Philosophy of mind http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio4/iotp/iotp_20031204-0900a.mp3 Capital Russel Nihilism -Moral actions do not exist There is only the physical There are only ideas There is only one species of substance Problems of philosophy You deserve a cookie * "Cogito, ergo sum", "I think, therefore I am" * Considered one of the founders of western philosophy The Mind/Brain Identity theory brain state = the experience
~ water = H2O
People don't realize the two are the same -> It does not follow that Morning Star and Evening Star would be different things Type Token a particular pain experience = a particular brain process
escapes the errors arising from a scanner which does not recognize somebody's pain experience = brain process
there is no difference between my pain and your pain "The computer model" an updated version of materialism Methodological behaviorism ignores mental states for they do not add anything necessary to psychology Psychological behaviorism Pavlov, Skinner
physical stimuli, learning histories and responses Logical behaviorism mental states consist of behavioural tendencies, patterns and characterization
Wittgenstein (modified) Persons Mind Personality Memory Psychological
continuity skeptical empiricism tabula rasa experiences knowledge gained through senses primary and secondary qualities
primary- in the object
secondary- mind dependent knowledge throug senses inductive reasonig particular- general
Swans example, sun has risen every day....example Cause and effect/ causality
-billiard ball example, He claims that you can not know that there is a causal relationship. You can not see the cause itself you just infer. After Humes publishments he saw that we can see the causal relationship. So knowledge must be gained by experience and ca
we cant see the reality in other temrs than causlaity or time and space, - or mind put exeriences to time and spaces but time is a invension of humans Das Ding an sich We can not experience things as itself becouse our minds are filtered to observe things as causality and in sense of time and space Russel Morally right action is based on God's commands
Without religion there wouldn't be morality
Plato's Euthyphro Dilemma: "Is something good because God says it's good or does God say it's good because it really is good"
Theodicy problem: An omnipotent, omniscient and benevolent God would not allow badness Morality is based on reason
Categorical Imperative:
Act according to a maxim which you would like to become a universal law
Treat humanity a as an end, not as a means to an end
not all principles are moral ones, e.g. "have good table manners"
No room for exceptions
Moral principles might contradict, e.g. lying to save a life. Alway try to maximise your own benefits
Not as simple as it sounds! Misbehaving might lead to a bad reputation which is not good for yourself Utility princple: Aspire to greatest good for the greatest number
Bentham's and Mill's classical utilitarianism: greatest good is pleasure
Utility calculus
These properties of pleasures/pains should be calculated: Intensity, duration, certainty, propinquity, fecundity, purity, extent Aristotle's Virtue ethics
Being virtuos=fulfilling one's purpose (telos)
Eudaimonia: flourishing (reaching telos)
Cardinal virtues:
Justice Thomas Aquinas' Natural Law Ethics
Aims of nature=laws of God -> we should obey them!
Morally right action is based on "Natural Laws", e.g. aim of sex is procreation so homosexuality and contraception are immoral
The official ethics of Catholic Church This guy's a douchebag Method of systematic doubt
-> One thing certain: I exist
-> using the method to find the nature of "I"
-> "I" is a thinking thing (mind is the essence of "I")
Cartesian dualism: material body & immaterial mind
Sense perception is property of mind -> you can have it without the body Starwson Criticism of Cartesian Dualism
Dualism disguises the nature of human individual
The mind of a man is only one respect of a man -> you can't distinguish properties of things from the the thing itself (e.g. a surface of a table without a table)
The concept of a mind is only to be understood as logically derivative from the concept of a person
If minds are not connected to matter there's no way to distinguish between different minds, i.e. no numerical identity of minds Plato's student who later criticized Plato's views Virtue ethics Metaphysics: Substance is divided in matter and form, e.g. human=human body+human idea
BUT unlike Plato form doesn't exist separate from the matter Objective idealism: Immaterial reality exists independent of human minds World of forms
Fundamental reality consist of invisible, eternal and unchanging forms (aka ideas). They are more real than any concrete thing or perception Allegory of the cave Highest form = form of good
-> a morally good person stives to this The socratic method
Elenchus: revealing contradictions
Maieutics: helping the opponent express his thoughts and the truth The first great philosopher Appears on Plato's dialogues "I know that I know nothing" "The unexamined life is not worth living" Berkeley Bishop "Esse est percipi" Subjective Idealism: only perceptions and no real world behind them However world doesn't disappear when it's not perceived because God perceives everything all the time "Everything that can be thought of is an idea in the mind therefore nothing can be thought of but ideas in the mind therefore everything else is inconceivable and what is inconceivable cannot exist" To be is to be perceived Memory theory: in order to be some person you must remember being that person (i.e. memory loss means you're not the same person anymore) Locke's Memory theory
In order to be some person you must remember being that person
Memory loss would mean you cease to be the person you were before! Physical continuity the problems of philosophy doesn'tt deny the existence of matter but denys that something can be non-mental.
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