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The Restoration

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Justin Schlakman

on 9 September 2014

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Transcript of The Restoration

There are seven groups as follows:

1. The Great, who live profusely.
2. The Rich, Who live very plentifully.
3. The Middle Sort, who live well.
4. The Working Trades, who labor hard, but feel no want.
5. The Country People, Farmers, ect. who fare indifferently.
6. The Poor, that fare hard.
7. The Miserable, that really pinch and suffer want.
-Daniel Defoe
English Society
Jonathan Swift: (1667-1745)
He is the principal prose writer of the early eighteenth century and England's greatest satirist.
Wrote: Gulliver's Travels
Authors Cont.
Historical Background
In 1660,England was exhausted from civil war.
In 1660, Charles II Proclaimed king of England
In 1665, the plague killed over 68,000 people
London was destroyed by a great fire in 1666.
English Test Act bans Roman Catholics from public office in 1673
Newton published the Mathematical Principles of Natural philosophy in 1687
"Glorious Revolution" : James II succeeded by Protest rulers William and Mary in 1688.
The Restoration
Literary Events
The restoration was a revival of philosophy, art, and literature.
In the 1660s, London theaters reopen; actresses appear on stage for the first time in England
Also in the 1660s, Samuel Pepys begins his diary
Aphra Behn publishes Oroonoko, an early antislavery novel in 1688
John Dryden's
All for Love
was produced in 1678.
In 1678, John Bunyan published
The Pilgrim's Progress
"I would have been glad to have lived under my woodside, and to have kept a flock of sheep, rather than to have undertaken this government."
-Oliver Cromwell
The Aftermath
After the war the people of both Rome and England were weary of war, suspicious of revolutionaries and radicals, and were ready to settle down, make money, and enjoy life.

Augustus became the second founder of Rome, and in 1660, the English people crowned King Charles II.

In this period of prosperity, many English writers modeled their works on the old Latin Classics. These writings that imitated Latin works were called neoclassical - "New Classical."
The War
The interregnum was the period between the execution of Charles I and the arrival of Charles II. During this time England was ruled by the Commonwealth of England.
The war became known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, a series of conflicts that took place in England, Ireland, and Scotland.

Out of the war came the English Civil War (1642-1651) which was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations over who should rule England.The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory on September 3, 1651.

The Outcome:
1. The execution of Charles I
2. The exile of his son, Charles II
3. The replacement of the English monarchy with the Commonwealth of England (1649-53) and then the Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. (1653-1659)
John Green: Crash Course
Just Kidding! But here is a spoof.
Aftermath Cont.
During the restoration people stopped asking "How?" and stared asking "Why?"

In 1662, to answer questions about the universe, King Charles II charted a group of philosophers: The Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge.

From this group the modern English prose was formed.

The "founder and first true master" of the modern English prose was John Dryden.

Charles II reestablished the Anglican Church as the official church of the country which continues to to be in England to this day.
Aphra Behn: (1640-1689)
The first English woman to earn her living by writing. She was a free spirit, and was born at the right time when women were permitted to work in the theater as actors, playwrights, and producers.
Wrote: Oroonoko
Alexander Pope: (1688-1744)
Alexander Pope was the most important poet of the early eighteenth century and a child prodigy.
(Not necessarily apart of the restoration)
In contrast to Swift and Pope was Daniel Defoe who stood for values that we think of as being middle class. Daniel Defoe had no interest in polished manners and social poise. He is attributed with the establishment of journalism.
Full transcript