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Canada - US Relationships (Timeline)
Transcript of Canada - US Relationships (Timeline)
Neutral (1492) 1492 1812 Discovery of Canada
Neutral (1534) War of 1812
Negative (1812) 1534 1949 Vietnam War
Negative (1965) 1965 On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus, an Italian explorer, set off from a Spanish port on three ships, the Santa Maria, Niña, and Pinta, in search of Asia, where gold, pearls, and spice awaited. On October 12th, 1492, Christopher Columbus and his crew sighted land, and landed. When seeing the native inhabitants, Columbus automatically referred to them as “Indians”, believing he had reached his intended location. As he progressed on to Cuba, which he believed to be Japan, he was met with only primitive lands. Continuing on to modern-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic, one of his three ships became shipwrecked and sank, forcing Columbus to settle on the land. Despite returning to Spain by mid-January, Columbus had already made contact, by establishing a European colony on the New World. In the following three voyages Columbus made to the New World, he continued to discover new parts of this new place, which he still believed to be Asia. This place was in fact a part of the modern-day Americas, and Columbus would be known throughout history as the man who discovered America. Historical Impact: Without the discovery of America, I believe that the majority of North America would not exist today, or at least not have evolved as far as it had. If Christopher Columbus had not discovered America, there’s no guarantee that nobody else would discover it. However, a million other things could have happened to America in that time. The natives could have developed more advanced technologies in order to combat expansion into their country, and this could mean that the future of America would be very different. This event is marked as NEUTRAL because of the lack of interaction with Canada. It did not make things better or worse with Canada, and thus is a neutral situation. However, it is still included as it is vital to history. Jacques Cartier, a French explorer, was commissioned by the King of France to find a path to the Orient. On his attempts to find one, he landed on Newfoundland, and finding it unpromising, moved forward to PEI. Cartier believed PEI to be a part of the mainland, and it was not until he discovered and chartered the Gulf of St. Lawrence that he did move on. As Cartier was sailing, he noticed a canoe of Iroquois, who welcomed him with open arms and exchanged gifts with Cartier and his crew. When Cartier sailed back, he took two of the Iroquois chief’s sons back with him as a proof of the New World. At seeing this, the King granted Cartier permission for another voyage. The two sons of the chief told him that the village that they had inhabited was a “kanata”, which was just an Iroquois word for village. However, Cartier mapped out Canada on his maps as “Kanata”, from which the name “Canada” was born. Historical Impact: The historical impact of Canada’s discovery is very similar to the one of America’s. If Canada had been discovered by anything else, then the Canada as we know it would have changed drastically, for the better or worse. Seeing as the current Canada is pretty well-off, it would be better to not have the past changed. This event is marked as NEUTRAL because of the lack of interaction with the US. It did not make things better or worse with the US and thus is a neutral situation. However, it is still included as it is vital to history. During the war of 1812, while Canada was under British rule, the US showed an interest in annexing Canada. This led to generally negative relationships, because having your land taken over isn’t a very good thing. Despite the US attacks, the experienced British commanders and the Canadian militia (consisting of French Canadians, loyalists, and other Canadians loyal to Britain) managed to fend off the US. The attacks first started in favor of Canada, as word of the war got to a Canadian detachment on Lake Huron before a US trading post in Michigan. The Canadian troops attacked and were able to get the US to surrender. Riding on this momentum, Major General Isaac Brock waves off a US recommendation for Canada to surrender and orders attacks on Detroit, which Canada takes easily with no fighting. Historical Impact: The war of 1812, and the battles Canada fought in it, is very important to Canada itself. If the US was successful in their annexation of Canada, the majority, if not all of Canada would actually belong to the US. There’s no telling what could happen in the future from there – the US could proceed to take even all of Canada. There’s certainly not much of a chance that they’ll stop, based on their idea of manifest destiny. The battles fought in the war of 1812 are significant to Canadian heritage, because if not for it, Canada could not even exist. The actions taken by Canadians in 1812 show a willingness to defend their country, against countries that were generally neutral to them before. This event is marked as NEGATIVE because it HURT Canadian - US relationships. The two countries (despite Canada being under British rule) attacked each other, and this would definitely hurt the relationships between them. Canada and the US were both one of the original members of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It is a North Atlantic organization, and is open to any country willing to help their cause. The goal of NATO is to safeguard all of its members should any problems arise – any attack against a country in the NATO is considered as an attack against all the NATO countries. This is listed in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, which was invoked once in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US. NATO tries its best to solve problems diplomatically, only resorting to force if such measures are needed.
NATO was founded on April 4th of 1949. In 1991, NATO developed alliances with former enemies after the fall of the Soviet Union. In 2011, Article 5 is invoked for the first time in response to 9/11 attacks, and NATO has proved to be continuously helpful, leading the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Historical Impact: 137 years after the War of 1812, Canada – US relations should’ve calmed down a bit from that negative period. It seems that because of this, they were able to work together to create an organization that is able to actively help in national situations. This says a lot for how civilized we are now, able to throw away the past to work towards a new future. This event shows the forgiveness of the two countries, willingness to improve, and unity. NATO is important as it is a show of unity in not only Canada and the US, but all of the North Atlantic countries. This event is marked as POSITIVE, because it made the Canadian - US relationship better. Having something like NATO really helps in uniting the countries as they work towards a common goal - the safety of the North Atlantic countries. NATO
Positive (1949) Starting 1965, US citizens were already flocking over the border in order a “draft dodge”, which is to avoid being drafted into the Vietnam War. Plain avoiding the war would be a criminal offense, hence the citizens flocking to Canada. Canadian immigration statistics state that 20,000 to 30,000 US men were able to dodge the draft in the Vietnam era, while the BBC reported more than 60,000. Overall, an estimated 50,000 to 125,000 of the US were able to avoid the draft because of disagreements with the cause. Basically, the US citizens did not want to fight in the war, but they had to. In order to escape the law, they crossed over the border to Canada, a place which was not affected by the US law. By doing this, they were able to not get drafted (hence the term "draft dodge") into the war. 1867 1939 - 1945 Historical Impact: Seeing as US citizens were flocking over the Canadian border to AVOID aiding the US in their war, I can't imagine that the US would have been appreciative of Canada. After all, Canada had no laws to prevent US citizens from entering. If enough citizens dodged the draft, the US could have lost the war because of the lack of soldiers. As stated, the loss of enough US soldiers could very well cause the US to lose the war. Since Canada was not preventing this, I marked this as a NEGATIVE event, as it probably hurt relations between the two countries. CURRENT FUTURE Canadian Confederation
Neutral (1867) Confederation (July 1, 1867) was when three British colonies became four provinces in the new Dominion of Canada. These new provinces were Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. There were many reasons for Confederation, some being political deadlock and want for an intercolonial railway. The Charlottetown Conference, originally to discuss a union of the Maritime regions, was expanded to include the idea of Confederation. The Quebec Conference focused more on Confederation, and from there seventy-two resolutions were formed, aptly named the Seventy-Two Resolutions. The London Conference was held in London, where the resolutions were approved, and the British North Act was formed (BNA Act). The Dominion of Canada came into place on July 1, 1867, and the regions joined over time. Historical Impact: If not for the Confederation of Canada, Canada would still be part of the British. Confederation is very important to Canadian history because of its role in making Canada an independent nation. Confederation led Canada to be less reliant on British forces and form their own army, along with being less of a burden to Britain. With the unified power of all the regions, Canada was able to become a strong, independent country. Confederation shows Canada's independence, willingness to change, and strong sense of unity. Despite the heavy impact this event had on Canadian history, it had almost no impact on Canadian - US relationships, hence it is marked as NEUTRAL. World War II
Positive (1939-1945) World War 2 included quite a lot of countries which eventually formed two forces, the Axis and the Allies. The Axis (which lost) was mainly composed of Germany, Italy, and Japan. The Allies (which won) was run by the "Big Three" - the US, the Soviet Union, and the British Commonwealth (which included Canada). The motive of the Axis, put simply, was world domination. Japan wanted the resources of other countries, Italy wanted to relive the glory days of the Roman Empire, and Germany (mainly Hitler) believed that Germany should be ruling the world.
The entire war was quite long, spanning around 6 years, so I will just cover the Canadian/US roles. Through the course of the war, Canada and America were very close, forming the PJBD (Permanent Joint Board on Defense) in order to unify Canadian/US forces and bring security to the nation. Throughout the war, Canada and the US practically fought as a whole, with the US coming to aid for Canadian problems and vice versa for problems of the US. World War 2, despite its negative effects, was actually very helpful to Canadian - US relations. Because Canada and the US fought as a collective mass and not a single country, they were able to cover for each other and keep the Americas generally protected from any attacks. This is a great example of the willingness to put aside differences and work together for a greater future shown by the US and Canada at thet time. The US and Canada were able to work together to aid the Allies in defeating the Axis, hence this is marked as a POSITIVE event. Current Leaders Stephen Harper
(Prime Minster of Canada) Barack Obama
(President of the United States) Canada and the United States of America are both countries in North America. They share a common border. The relationships are very close, shown in their trading - around 1.6 billion per day made in trades. Also, around 300,000 cross between the countries every day. The two countries work together for a multitude of issues, and are both part of organizations like the United Nations, NATO, G8, and G20. SECURITY ENVIRONMENT TRADE The PJBD (Permanent Joint Board on Defense provides consultation on matters of defense in the US and Canada, and the NATO (mentioned previously) also aids in situations in which defense is required. The Beyond The Border Action plan offers guidelines on how to increase security of both countries. As a part of this, US Customs conducts pre-clearance at 8 Canadian airports, and there are plans to extend this to all types of travel. The US and Canada work hard in order to resolve environmental and water issues. Under the Columbia River Treaty, both the US and Canada take care of the Columbia River as it flows from Canada into the US. The Clean Energy Dialogue is in charge of expanding the options we have and reducing the fossil fuels burnt, filling the grid with clean and renewable energy that is also affordable as a substitute for our oil. With this, we can afford to go into the future and sustain our energy when fossil fuels run out. The US and Canada also take part in finding ways to reducee Carbon Dioxide emissions and greenhouse gases. The NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) aims to reduce trade barriers by establishing agreed trade rules. Canada is the largest source of foreign power in the US, and also operates with the US on an integrated electricity grid. The US and Canada have the world's largest comprehensive trade relationship. US investment in Canada focuses on mining, smelting, petroleum, and manufacturing while Canadian investment in the US focuses on finance, insurance, and banking. TRENDS To predict the future, we must first analyze the trends in the past. From them, here's what we can tell. 1) Canada loves to co-operate with the US, but... If there's anyone that works well with the US, it's Canada. This was evident in WWII, where they practically worked as a collective mass. 2) Canada has their own opinions too. If you've done something that Canada disagrees with, they won't hesitate to take action. This is evident in places like the Vietnam War where Canada generally housed the draft dodgers from the US, and during the War of 1812 where Canada (Britain) had no hesitation in preparing defenses and attacking the US. 3) Organizations brood unity. What better way to unify countries than to form organizations between them? According to past trends, there is none. The PJBD was formed in WWII and still stays to this day, along with the NATO. These two countries also are part of other national organizations like the UN, G8, and G20, and nothing negative has come out of that yet. (nor, based on current trends, will ever.) SO BASICALLY... Organizations are cool. From previous trends, we can see that every organization so far has led to positive bonds being made between Canada and the US. If we have more organizations, they create an opportunity for the US and Canada to work in a co-operative environment and build up their bonds to be even stronger than they are now. If a war arises, it's probably in the best interest of both countries to quickly decide on a decision that benefits the both of them as a whole, because from the trends we see that Canada is generally quick to disagree if something is seen as "wrong" in the US way of thinking. Considering the US and Canada practically work as a collective mass, it would be interesting to think about what would happen if the two countries were to merge into one. It could potentially happen in the future, and who knows the impacts it'll have? Thanks for Reading! Heritage Fair 2013 James Long 8-1