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Elements and Principles of Art

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Melissa Taplin

on 1 February 2017

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Transcript of Elements and Principles of Art

"Line is the path of a point moving through space"
Value is the lightness or darkness of a colour. Value is most pronounced or obvious in a black, white, and gray scale picture.
Colour Theory is "a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of specific color combinations."
"Texture refers to the way an object feels to the touch or looks as it may feel if it were touched." (Fussell)
Elements of Art

The 2D or 3D representation of objects. Shapes can also be free form.
Abstract Art
* Abstract Art is "a painting or sculpture that does not depict a person, place or thing in the natural world-- even in an extremely distorted or exaggerated way. Therefore, the subject of the work is based on what you see: colour, shapes, brushstrokes, size, scale and, in some cases, the process.

* In abstract art, colour plays a very important role in evoking emotion.
Elements and Principles of Art
The Elements of Art
Different lines elicit different emotions.
Project- Upside-down drawing
"Area in which art is organized"

1-Choose five different objects and arrange them in front of you.
2-Draw the shapes in between the objects.
3- Colour the lines with a thick black line.
4-Colour the negative space.
Positive and Negative Space
Using shape and space:
A Japanese form of art dealing with positive and negative space.

Positive Space
is the subject (the image where you are intended to focus)
Negative Space
is whatever surrounds your subject. Negative space defines the image.

Negative spaces also have their own shapes.If you remove the positive space you can see them more clearly.

Positive and negative space are often used to create balance in a drawing.
"Notan" means light and dark harmony.
When a colour is made lighter by adding white it is called a tint.
When a colour is made darker by adding black it is called a shade.
When grey is added to a colour it is called a tone.
**Colours in all three cases must be pure hues.
Colour Wheel
Primary Colours:
, and

Secondary Colours:
Tertiary Colours: Red-Orange, Yellow-Orange, Yellow-Green, Blue-Green, Blue-Violet, Red-Violet.
Colour Combinations
Colours that are opposite each other on the colour wheel. (Good to create contrast/make something stand out).
Colours that are next to each other on the colour wheel. (Good for creating a harmonious palette).
Use of a single colour with its variations of shades and tints.
The Principles of Art


* Began with Wassily Kandinsky in 1911.
The desire to create an image in an art medium as true to reality as possible.
An attempt to create an impression of reality through an image. It is not an exact representation. It emphasizes "the importance of the artist's way of seeing the world..."

The impressionists "wanted to paint...the way they were seeing in terms of color, paying much attention to the effects of light but not necessarily by recording all of the tiny details." (craftsy.com)

Try squinting to blur details and make the image softer and remember that you are not drawing the scene to be exactly true to life. Paint with blocks of colour and different brush strokes. Make sure to mix the colour on the page (layers)--- not before. (willkempartschool.com)
"Pattern refers to the repetition or reoccurrence of a design element..."
"Rhythm or movement refers to the suggestion of motion through the use of various elements."
"Proportion is the size relationship of parts to a whole and to one another. Scale refers to relating size to a constant, such as a human body."
"Balance is the impression of equilibrium in a pictorial or sculptural composition. Balance is often referred to as symmetrical, asymmetrical, or radial."
"Unity is achieved when the components of a work of art are perceived as harmonious, giving the work a sense of completion."
"Emphasis refers to the created center of interest, the place in an artwork where your eye first lands."
Art Movement- Op Art
* Created in the United States around 1964.
* The real name of the Art style is "Optical Art"
* During this period in the US, President Kennedy had been assassinated and people began question the ability to achieve a "idyllic lifestyle".
* In Op Art, a pattern is created that almost makes the piece look as though it is moving.
* Op artists use tessellations to create such an effect.

*equal use of positive and negative space.
Pop Art
Relief Sculpture
Movement Sculpture in the style of Giacometti
Principles: Pattern and Rhythm and Movement
-Art Styles Quiz (Realism, Impressionism, Abstract Art, Contour Drawing, Sculpture, Op Art, and Pop Art Quiz (May 23rd)

Art Portfolio: You still need a table of contents, all notes and handouts from class, and written descriptions and evaluations of each piece created.

-For your art portfolio:
-Self-Portrait -You will also need to have title
-Abstract Portrait pages for each of the six
-Op Art Cube Principles of Art that show either
-Contour Drawings have self-made image using that
-Movement Sculpture principle or a found art piece that
-Pop Art piece displays the principle (this needs
-Impressionist drawing a written description of the piece)

Contour Drawing
Scripture Verse- Final Project
Now is the time to put all you have learned into practice.
You are to create a visual representation of a scripture verse that speaks to you.
The sky is the limit.
Be creative
Use any and all the techniques we have talked about in class.
The scripture verse should be written on the back (if on paper) or presented somehow with the piece. Be sure to also provide a written explanation of how the verse is being displayed in the piece.
Contour drawings "show the outlines, shapes, and edges of a scene, but omit fine details, surface texture, colour, and tone."
The focus of contour drawing is on shape and proportion. (Think colouring book images)
Blind contour drawing
: when you keep your eyes fixed on the object, and never look down at your page while drawing. You should also never lift your pencil from the paper.
The focus is also to draw shapes and not symbols.
Modified contour drawing
: Allows the artist to glance at your page occasionally.
On February 3rd, 2010 Alberto Giacometti's bronze sculpture "L'Homme Qui Marche'", sold for 65 million euros (about 98.5 million Canadian dollars). After WWII, Giacometti transitioned from tiny sculptures to creating taller, thinner forms made of bronze depicting the basic human form. Giacometti died in 1966.

Step 1
- You will draw the movement/pose you wish to create.

Step 2
- You will affix the wire to your base, and you will play with the wire until the point when you are satisfied that you have depicted the correct movement.

Step 3-
You will use plaster to create texture over your culture.

Step 4-
You will paint over the plaster to add the "bronze" effect.
Homeless Jesus
by Timothy P. Schmalz
Inspired by Matthew 25
For your assignment, you will use Giacometti's idea of focusing on the basic human form and basic movement in sculpture to create your own movement piece. However, unlike Giacometti, your piece must focus on a Christian truth that you will write on the base of your sculpture at it's completion. To help, think about the following: How does the body move? What does it look like? How does it feel? What movement is important to you? Why? What movement represents your culture/you today?
The Pieta
by Michelangelo
The Thinker
by Auguste Rodin
Sculpture in the round is three-dimensional and can be viewed from all angles. It is usually free-standing and only "is not attached (except possibly at the base) to any other surface."
Christ the Redeemer
in Rio de Janeiro Brazil
Relief sculpture is two-dimensional and can only be viewed from one side. It is normally carved into only one side of the medium and projects from a fixed background. A low relief sculpture "projects only slightly from the" background. While a high relief sculpture may have one-half of its "natural circumference from the background".
Source: artfulartsyamy.blogspot.ca
"Pop Art was an art movement in the later 1950s and 1960s that reflected everyday life and common objects. Pop artists blurred the line between fine art and commercial art."
"Pop Artists did images that anybody walking down the street could recognize in a split second...all the great modern things that the Abstract Expressionists tried so hard not to notice at all."
"They used common images: advertisements, consumer goods, celebrities, photographs, and comic strips."
They also used "flat colors and hard edge compositions"
Source: artfulartsyamy.blogspot.ca
"Pop art was appealing to many viewers, while others felt it made fun of common people and their lives. It was hard for some people to understand why Pop Artists were painting cheap, everyday objects, when the function of art historically was to uphold and represent culture's most valuable ideals."
Roy Lichtenstein
Andy Warhol
Wayne Thiebaud
Your Pop Art Project
Option 1
: You will create an image in the style of Roy Lichtenstein by creating a comic self-portrait.
Option 2
: You will create an image of a common, everyday object. You will draw the product and then colour it will flat colours and bold lines.
Within Pop Art, there is a great sense that anything can be art. The everyday, ordinary images around us are, in fact, great pieces of art. Therefore, while art was in everything, art become for everyone:
Art Movements
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