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idealized cognitive models

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ИИAΜUƎЯ ИAITϨABƎϨ

on 6 December 2012

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Transcript of idealized cognitive models

Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann Development of Typicality “[...] the word’s meaning can be understood only with reference to a structured background of experience, beliefs, or practices, constituting a kind of conceptual prerequisite for understanding the meaning“ Fillmore & Atkins (1992: 76) the basics about ICMs
what Rumelhart says
what Fillmore (more or less) says
(half of) what Lakoff and Johnson say
what Borges tells
what we claim
no joke about this 1
2
3
4
5
6
7 Development of Typicality
Simplest Typicality Effect
Cluster Model (Frame Semantics)
Metonymy as an ICM
Radial Categories
Criticism
Sources Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann Table of Contents Our knowledge of the world is organized by idealized cognitive models.
“Idealized” because they cannot capture the whole complexity of reality abstract across a range of experiences
do not fit every situation “An idealized cognitive model may fit one’s understanding of the world either perfectly, very well, pretty well, somewhat well, pretty badly, badly, or not at all.”
Lakoff (1990: 70) Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann Cluster Model combination of several cognitive models Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann 7 days
5 working days
break of two days ICM of Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann seven-day weeks do not exist in nature
product of our culture
not all cultures have the same week structure Why is it idealized? Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann ICMs influence processes like categorization and reasoning
prototypicality effects develop four types:
- simplest typicality effect
- Cluster Model
- Metonymy
- Radial Categories Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann Metonymy one entity stands for another entity Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann Radial Categories non central cases defined by their divergence from the central case
subcategories are to different degrees regarded as prototypical
subcategories are not generated by the preceding central case Cluster Model Metonymy as ICM Radial Categories simple typicality ICM Idealized Cognitive Models sources of typicality effects "The White House was very angry about this reaction." Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann understanding of metonymy consists of ICMs
ICMs as a cognitive reference point ICM and Metonymy setting up norms and expectations Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann 1)Social stereotypes

2)Ideals

3)Typical examples

4)Paragons

5)Generators


6)Salient examples e.g. housewife-mother

e.g. ideal husband vs. stereotypical husband

e.g. apples and oranges for fruits

e.g. Nelson Mandela as a paragon for political leaders

e.g. 1- 9 as prototypical members of the category
NATURAL NUMBERS

e.g. Oxford University "Fear is the mother of morality." "He wants his girlfriend to mother him." clusters are more basic than the individual models

adaptation in metaphors
often reveal original model "Most American children suffer too much mother and too little father." Adoptive
mother Step-
mother Birth
mother Surrogate
mother Foster
mother PROTOTYPE MOTHER culture example martial arts contests HON HON (Jap.) language example classifier with staffs or swords shots in base ball phone calls with reference to the callers distance medical injections long & thin needls rolls of tape long & thin when unrolled MOTHER birth model genetic model nurturance model marital model genealogic model MOTHER Adoptive
mother Step-
mother Birth
mother Surrogate
mother Foster
mother PROTOTYPE MOTHER defined by core meaning defined by core divergence problem of prototypical primes Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann Criticism critique of incorrect ex- or inclusion problem of missing prototypes critique that complex categories are not effectually covered general critique: not an self-consistent and independent theory Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann Sources WEEK Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann mismatch between ICMs Simplest Typicality Effect (I) ICM of BACHELOR: BACHELOR POPE monogamous society
institution of marriage
standard marriageable age Is the Pope a bachelor? Idealized Cognitive Models - Maike Vennes, Sebastian Reumann ICM of CATHOLIC CHURCH: Simplest Typicality Effect (II) NO! marriage of Catholic clergy is prohibited see Lakoff (1990: 104 f.) birth model genetic model nurturance model marital model genealogic model see Lakoff (1990: 104 f.) MOTHER
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