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What is Science?
Transcript of What is Science?
According to recorded history, paper making was invented China in the Han Dynasty in the second century. The first thing made on these early forms of paper was a map. Paper making had led to books and enhanced scholarships.
Definition of 'science'
The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.
'One never notices what has been done; one can only see what remains to be done.'
Marie Curie (1867- 1934), a polish physicist and a chemical pioneer in the field of radioactive, is the the only person honoured the Nobel Prize in two different sciences. She is also the first female professor at the University of Paris. Her achievements include: the creation of of theory of radioactive, techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes and discovery for two new elements- radium and polonium. While she is an actively loyal French citizen, she never lost sense of her Polish identity.
The Copernicum System
On his deathbed, in 1543, Nicholas Copernicus discovered that the sun is a motionless body at the centre of the solar system and that planets are orbiting around it. Before this discovery was introduced, scientists believed the earth to be the centre of the universe.
What is Science?
Branches of Science
What does scientists do?
Impact on society
Archaeology- study of ancient culture
Astronomy- study of planets & universe
Biology- study of living things
Botany- study of plant life
Chemistry- study of matter in chemical reactions
Ecology- study of organisms & the environment
Environmental Science- study of all matter related to the environment
Geology- study of the earth
Marine Science- study of animals & plants in the water environments (in the ocean)
Medicine- science in health issues (eg. diseases)
Metereology- study of the atmosphere & weather
Physics- study of properties & behaviour
Zoology- study of animals
A scientist conducts experiments and research to make new discoveries and inventions about many different topics.
A list of the main branches:
By C. C. (year 8)
Glenunga International High School
Issac Newton, in 1664, discovered gravity is a force which draws objects towards each other. This explains how things fall and why planets orbit around the sun.
In 1821, Michael Faraday discovered when wire carrying electric currents is placed next to a single magnetic pole, it will rotate- this led to the development of the electric motor. Ten years later, Faraday became first person to produce electric currents by moving a wire through a magnetic field. He created the first generator to produce electricity.
In 1859, Charles Darwin made a discovery that changed the idea of how life was developed on earth. He argued that organisms evolve and change slowly over time to allow species to adapt and survive in its environment. Adaptations happen by chance, if species doesn't adapt then it may become extinct. Darwin had called this process the 'natural selection', but it is often called the 'survival of the fittest'.
The French chemist, Louis Pasteur, experimented with bacteria in 1860. He discovered that diseases are caused by organisms and that bacteria could be killed by heat and disinfectant. Before he had done this experiment, people had not known the cause of diseases. After his discovery, doctors then realised to wash their hands and clean their instruments. This had saved many lives.
Theory of Relative
In 1905, Albert Einstein made a discovery to explain the relationship between speed, time and distance. Einstein found out that the speed of light always remain the same regardless of how fast the person or thing is moving. This became the foundation for many modern sciences.
Big Bang Theory
George Lemaitre proposed about the Big Bang Theory in 1927. He said that thirteen billion years ago, there was a massive explosion which created the planets and moons that now exist in the universe. All matter used to be compressed into a tiny dot, a fraction of a second dot expanded and matter was instantly filled with the current universe- this began the marking of time. Scientific observations seem to confirm his theory.
Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotics, penicillin, in 1928. In his lab he grew penicillin using mould and fungi. Antibiotics is a powerful drug that kills bacteria in the body to prevent diseases and sicknesses. Without this, infections like strep throat can be deadly.
James Watson (from United States) and Francis Crick (from England) found the double-helix structure of DNA on February 28th in 1958. They discovered it was made up of two strands twisted around each other and have a endless variety of chemical patterns. Genes made of DNA determine the colour of hair, eyes, etc. This discovery helped doctors understand diseases and may someday prevent some illnesses like heart cancer. Because of this discovery, Watson and Crick won the Nobel Prize in 1962.
In 1869, Dmitry Mendeleev (Russian) proposed the Periodic Law for the Periodic Table. He noticed that when arranged by atomic weight,chemical elements line up to form groups with similar properties.Because of this, scientists were able to predict the existence of undiscovered elements and note errors in atomic weights. Henry Moseley (English), in 1913, confirmed this table to be more accurate by arranging elements by atomic number (number of protons in an atom in an element).
In 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays. He was rewarded the first ever Nobel Prize in Physics in 2011 because of this discovery. X-rays see through flesh and wood, but can't penetrate through bones and lead, which makes x-rays useful for doctors to look for broken bones or security officers to look for drugs in suitcases.
Niels Bohr (Danish), won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922 for his research in the structure of an atom and work for development in the quantum theory. Although he helped with the development for the atomic bomb, his researches often promoted atomic power for peaceful purposes.
In 1945, some of the greatest scientists of the times had gathered to figure how to refine uranium and build an atomic bomb. The work that this grouped worked on was called the Manhattan Project. The atomic bomb had put an end to World War 2 in 1945 when the US dropped the bomb on Japanese cities. It killed 10 000, in result, the Japanese surrendered. Several scientists, who worked on the Manhattan Project then urged the government to use the nuclear bombs for peaceful purposes only, however, many countries still keep nuclear weapons.
In 1983- 1984, Luc Montagnier (French) and Robert Gallo (American) found a virus on HIV which is caused by AIDs. Scientists had then experimented to test whether a person has HIV- people with a positive result were urged to take precautions to prevent spread of disease. There are drugs available to keep HIV/AID under control and, hopefully, further research will help with a development to cure this.
'Science is a different equation. Religion is a boundary condition.'
English mathematician and logician, Alan Turning, is often considered as the 'father of modern computer science'. With his Turing test, he made significant and characteristically provocative contribution to argue artificial intelligence- discussing whether a machine is conscious and can think. Turing, later on, worked at the National Physical Laboratory, creating one of the first designs for stored-program computer, ACE, which was never built in its full form. In 1948, he moved to the University of Manchester. There he emerged one of the world's earliest true computers.
'An expert is a man who has made all mistakes which can be in a narrow field.'
Niels Bohr, Danish physicist, made fundamental contributions to the understanding of atomic structure and quantum mechanics. Because of this, he received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1922. He helped solve problems that classical physics could not explain about the nuclear model of an atom. He collaborated with many of the top physicists at that time and he was working as part of the Manhattan Project. Bohr is described as one of the most influential physicist of the 20th century.
'A man should look for what is, and not for what he thinks he should be.'
German physicist, Albert Einstein, is known for his theory of relative and special mass. He received the Nobel Prize in physics for services to Theoretical Physics, particularly for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. Eistein had invented the Einstein Refrigerator. Some of his contributions to society include: advances in fields of relativistic cosmology, capillary action, critical opalescence and classical problems of statistical mechanics.
'To myself I am only a child playing on the beach, while vast oceans of truth lie undiscovered before me.'
Isaac Newton, a English physicist, mathetician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian, made a major contribution to the world- he discovered the nature in gravity. He was observing an apple falling from a tree. Some of his inventions include: refelcting microscope and pet door. According to the survey in 2005 of scientists in Britain's Royal Society, Newton was ranked the world's most influential scientist ever.
Scientists have made valuable contributions to our society, such as Issac Newton has initiated classical mechanics in physics and Galileo had made experiments and discoveries that were essential to modern science.
The first person to be employed as a science teacher in a British public school was William Sharp. Sharp is said that he had established a model for science to be taught in the British public school.
Science education involves sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific society. The science field includes learning about science contents, social science and teaching pedagogy. Some common topics in science education are: physical things, living creatures and space objects.
The slinky was invented by Richard Jones, a naval engineer. He was trying to make a meter design to monitor power naval battleships. Jones was testing with tension springs, but one fell down and kept bouncing up and down from place to place after it hit the ground- this became the slinky.
Sir Alexander Fleming, a scientist, invented the penicillin. He was trying to find the 'wonder drug' to cure diseases, but he couldn't find it. Not until he gave up on his experiments did he then accidentally discover it. Fleming had noticed a contaminated Petri dish, he discarded, contained mould that was dissolving all bacteria around it. When he grew mould by itself, it contained a powerful antibiotic- penicillin.
LSD as a drug
The LSD (as a drug) was invented by Albert Hofmann. He was researching lysergic acid derivatives in a laboratory in Basel, Switzerland. While he was researching its properties, he, unintentionally, swallowed a small amount of LSD and first acid trip in history.
The silly putty was invented by James Writer, an engineer at General Electric. In World War 2, the United States Government needed rubber aeroplane tires, boots for soldiers, etc. Wright tried to make rubber but substitute it for silicon which is a widely available material. During his test with silicon oil, Wright added boric acid to the substance and a created gooey mess that bounced. No one found any use for it, but it became a fun toy.
George Crum, a chef at Carey Moon Lake in Saratoga Springs, was trying to make a plate of fried potatoes. One day, a customer complained that he wanted his potatoes to be cut thinner and be more fried, Crum had lost his temper in this incident. So, when he had to recook the potatoes, he cut the potatoes real thin and fried them really hard. Surprisingly, the customer loved it and wanted more.
Joseph Swan in 1860 first invented the light bulb, although it could not glow for more than a couple of hours. Thomas Edison invented a light bulb that could glow for a longer time period and he was granted its US patent in 1879.
The first digital computers were developed in the early 1940s in the United Kingdom, but the size was as large as a room. The first personal computer, which propelled the Information Age, was invented in 1957.
World Wide Web
In 1990, an English engineer, Sir Tim berners invented the worldwide web. The worldwide web is a system that allows people the search websites and online pages, it lets you access through the internet. People often confuse it with internet which was invented for military purposes in early 1960s.