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Chapter 12: Social Psychology
Transcript of Chapter 12: Social Psychology
12.2 How is compliance defined, and what are four common ways to gain the compliance of another?
12.3 What factors make obedience more likely?
12.4 What are three components of an attitude, how are attitudes formed, and how can attitudes be changed? 12.5 How do people react when attitudes and behavior are not the same?
12.6 What are social categorization and implicit personality theories?
12.7 How do people try to explain the actions of others
12.8 How are prejudice and discrimination different?
12.9 Why are people prejudice, and how can prejudice and discrimination be stopped? Social cognitive theory
Social identity theory
Social categorization (ex. black, white, student, teacher)
Self-fulfilling prophecy How do people learn prejudice? Divide into two groups.
Each person grab one-two puzzle pieces out of the bag.
Write your name on your puzzle pieces.
Put the pieces together…WITHOUT talking.
** You are only allowed to move puzzle pieces with your name on them. “Jigsaw Classroom” Activity In Group Contact or Intergroup Contact Overcoming Prejudice In groups and out groups or “us” versus “them” Types of Prejudice 1. Change their conflicting behavior to make it match their attitude.
2. Change their current conflicting cognition to justify their behavior.
3. Form new cognitions to justify their behavior. There are three basic things that people do to reduce cognitive dissonance. Implicit Personality Theories Every time you see a question mark, raise your hand to answer a question. If answered correctly, you may receive a prize. Mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain types of people are called _________.
d. attitudes. What is cognitive dissonance? To remember cognitive dissonance, think of "talking" yourself into or out of something. What is an easy way to remember cognitive dissonance? Out Group In Group All the people the with whom a particular person identifies with... What is impression formation? She looks "fancy". She looks "basic". Heard the saying "First impressions are lasting impressions."? 12.10 What Factors govern attraction and love, and what are some different kinds of love?
12.11 How is aggressive behavior determined by biology and learning?
12.12 What is altruism, and how is deciding to help someone related to the presence of others? Social Categorization Social Categorization Liking and Loving: Interpersonal Attraction Stereotypes Factors That Govern Attraction: Physical Attractiveness
Reciprocity of Liking help us to organize schemas ...and everyone else NAME ONE "RULE" OR FACTOR OF ATTRACTION Attribution:
the cause of a behavior is assumed to come from external sources. Dispositional process by which we explain both our own behavior and the behavior of others Situational cause of behavior is assumed to come from within the individual “But what else determines which type of cause a person will use? For example, what determines how people explain the behavior of someone they don’t already know or like?”
Can the tendency to make these errors be reduced?
Notice how many other people are doing the same thing
What would you do if you were in the same situation? Fundamental Attribution Error 3 COMPONENTS OF LOVE: INTIMACY
COMMITMENT What is the purpose for social categorization? Social Identity theory helps explain WHY people feel the need to categorize, or stereotype others . Which of the following is not one of the reasons given by the text for interpersonal attraction? Example of Equal Status Contact A. Physical attractiveness
B. Similarity C. Personality
D. Proximity Prejudice is the attitude, and discrimination is the behavior resulting from that attitude. The behavioral component of prejudice is________.
c. implicit personality theorizing.
d. holding a negative attitude toward a person. The most likely predictor of the development of prejudice and discrimination between two groups is the degree of ____________ between the two groups.
d. emotionality The self fulling prophecy is a negative outcome of _____________.
a. social identity
b. reference group
c. social category
d. stereotype vulnerability The people with whom a person identifies most strongly are called the ______________.
a. referent group
d. "them" group Agression: behavior intended to hurt or destroy another [causes] Genetics
Variations in Brain Function
Learning Aggression [effects] Killing Sprees
Glorification of Violence Altruism: [FORM OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR] Helping someone in trouble with no expectation of reward often with no fear of ones own safety Examples:
- Mother who enters a burning house to save her child
- Random stranger risking his life to save that same child PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR SOCIALLY DESIRABLE BEHAVIOR THAT BENEFITS OTHERS RATHER THAN BRING THEM HARM REASONS WHY PEOPLE WON'T HELP BYSTANDER EFFECT DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY
Effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not; help becomes less likely as the number of bystanders increases SOCIAL ROLE: Pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position When a person fails to take responsibility for actions or inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility FIVE DECISION POINTS IN HELPING BEHAVIOR Noticing
Defining an Emergency
Planning a Course of Action
Taking action [table 12.3 (page 483)] 1. Once a situation has been defined as an emergency, the next step in the decision making process is _____.
a. noticing c. taking responsibility
b. taking action d. planning a course of action 2. The area of the brain that is most involved inaggression is the ______.
a. amygdala c. cerebellum
b. pineal gland d. cortex 3. The people with whom a person identifies most strongly are called the _____.
a. referent group c. out-group
b. in-group d. "them" group BONUS What is Social Psychology ? The scientific study of how a person's behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others.
Three main areas: social influence, social cognition, social interaction Social Influence the process through which real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual Conformity Changing one's own behavior to match that of other people Solomon Asch in 1951 conducted a study on conformity Groupthink kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned. Compliance changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for change Foot-in-the-door technique
small commitment + compliance = bigger commitment Door-in-the-face technique
Big commitment - compliance = small commitment Norm of reciprocity
"I help you; you help me" Lowball technique
Price is subject to change That's-Not-All Technique
"But wait there is more !" Obedience Milgram Experiment Task Preformance Social Facilitation vs Social Impairment Social Loafing Postive Influence vs Negative Influence 80 vs 20 1 Social Loafer Social Loafer + another person = Attitudes A tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation Attitude toward
cheese pizza I like cheese pizza it
makes me feel good I only buy cheese
pizza no matter
where I eat I think cheese pizza
is the best food ever Affect
(Thoughts) What is prejudice? When a person holds an unsupported, and often negative stereotyped attitude toward a person, it's prejudice.
When prejudicial attitudes cause a particular social group to be treated differently than others that cause for equal treatment it is discrimination. Equal Status Contact
Example: “Jigsaw Classroom” can lead to http://www.schooltube.com/video/3454445cc84b47a990b3/Waldner%20Psych%2020%2009%20HIMYM%20Clip%20-%20Cognitive%20Dissonance http://dsc.discovery.com/tv-shows/curiosity/videos/the-milgram-experiment.htm A person's conformity in a situation like the Asch line study is most likely to be strongest when________.
a. the person is in the room with only one other person
b. at least one other person agrees with the person.
c. that person is from Hong Kong
d. that person is from the United States What is Social interaction ?
What is an Example ? Alex who is in the honors program, failed to do his share of the work on the group project with his four classmates. Alex was most likely engaging in
a. social facilitation
b. social impairment
c. social loafing
d. social influencing