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Transcript of Sci3 Biomass
Komal Zahrah, and Nicole Meek BIOMASS What is biomass? * It's a renewable resource made from plants and animal and human waste that contains stored energy from the sun
*Some examples of what biomass is made from are wood, crops, manure, and garbage
* The most common component of biomass that is used for energy is wood from trees
*Biomass can either be used directly, or indirectly—once or converted into another type of energy product such as biofuel. Biomass can be converted to energy in three ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion.
*Thermal conversion processes use heat as the dominant mechanism to convert biomass into another chemical form.
*Chemical conversion is a range of chemical processes
may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a fuel that is more conveniently used,
transported or stored, or to exploit some property of the process itself.
*Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes
of bacteria and other micro-organisms to break down
biomass. How it works... To get biomass energy big trucks collect wood, tree branches, and large scraps from natural areas and farms. Then it's brought to factories or a biomass plant and all of the scraps and wood are dumped into a big hopper, which transfers all of it into a furnace where it is burned. The heat is used to boil water, and the energy from the steam is used to turn turbines and makes generators run, which makes electrical power. How it's used... * It can be burned directly, or converted into a gas or oil to generate electricity (biopower) and heat.
* It can also be converted into liquid fuels (biofuels) for our transportation needs.
*Another way of breaking down biomass is by breaking down the carbohydrates and simple sugars to make alcohol. Current uses... * 70% of all biomass in the world is used in the residential sector, while 14% is used in industry and 11% is transformed into electricity, heat, or other energy carriers such as liquid fuels or biogases.
* More than 2.4 billion people rely completely on biomass fuels for their heating and cooking needs. Negative environmental uses... * The use of wood and other plant material to make biomass results in deforestation
* The deforestation can lead to a lot of erosion
* The use of biomass gives out carbon dioxide and adds to global warming.
The ethanol produced during the process of creating biomass may increase the levels of nitrogen oxide in the atmosphere.* Positive environmental uses... Biomass' acceptance... Costs... Locations... Applying science... The effectiveness of science... The implications of science... * The replacement of coal by biomass results in a large reduction of carbon dioxide that contributes to the greenhouse affect.
* Biomass used as a fuel reduces the use of fossil fuels for the production of heat, steam, and electricity for residential, industrial, and agricultural use.
* Since it uses waste material to make energy, it reduces the amount of garbage being dumped and causing pollution.
*Biomass helps reduce the levels of methane (released during the decomposition of organic matter) in the air.
* Biomass generates about the same amount of carbon dioxide as fossil fuels, but every time a new plant grows, almost the same amount of carbon dioxide released is removed from the atmosphere. (By planting a lot of plants to make biomass we get rid of a lot of carbon dioxide). * The cost is 5-10 cents per KWH
* It is not prohibitive, this is because of biomass' low cost. Since the cost is so low many people, all over the world can afford to use biomass energy.
* Biomass is this cheap because it is made from organic and agricultural material and waste. http://www.nefco.org/sites/nefco.viestinta.org/files/biomass_production_india_photo_maija_saijonmaa.jpg
http://worldwildlife.org/threats/deforestation *It is widely accepted due to its low cost, because it is renewable, it can produce up to 10 times more energy than solar and wind energy, and because it is easy to come by.
* In some countries it is the main energy source
* It has become one of the most used renewable energy sources
* Biomass is used worldwide 1 minute-3 minutes The best locations that allow biomass are farm areas. This is because on a farm you can find various aspects that are used to create biomass. For starters you have all the plants and crops, for example hay, dried corn, tall grass, ect. Also, you would find multiple animals whose manure could be turned into biomass, for example cows, horses, pigs, ect. Then you have wood chips from some of the animal pens, along with all of the trash the people produce. But most of all, you find all of these things, which make biomass, in one location. Science is applied to everything in biomass. To start off, people had to experiment a lot, and discover how to make biomass into a renewable resource. Then comes the machinery used to actually create the biomass. People had to find and build the right machines that are used throughout the entire process. Next, science comes in when it comes to the wood, plants, manure, waste, and garbage that goes into biomass. The plants and wood (trees) must grow and go through photosynthesis before being cut down and put through the biomass process. The manure comes from animals who had to grow, live, breath, and eat. People live, eat, and dispose(waste and garbage), this garbage is then turned into biomass. Without science there would be no biomass energy. The science is very effective. Without it people wouldn't have biomass energy. It's great at solving global energy problems and issues because it allows us to have a renewable energy source that helps lower the amount of greenhouse gases and global warming, reduces fossil fuel use, reduces the amount of trash dumped in landfills, and reduces the levels of methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Also, we found a way to use another energy source which is very affective and cheap. Moral- it gives us a way to produce less trash and create less greenhouse gases, allowing us to help our environment(unlike fossil fuels and other energy sources).
Ethical- it informs us of how and what we can do to help out our environment by using
a better source of energy than what we are used to.
Social- when it comes to our society, it protects our environment, allows us to save more fossil fuels, guarantees us an energy source that won't run out. Also, in a way it brings us closer because we don't have to go out of our way to get energy, we can get it right from our community.
Economic- because biomass is so cheap it doesn't take a lot of money from our economy and eventually we could build up a stronger economy due to all the money saved on electricity. Also, people can put the money they save on their electricity bill toward helping their community. Employment in agriculture, forestry, and industries related to producing feedstock will increase significantly. Also, smaller plant locations, more rural jobs, and fewer transportation costs will come out of using biomass.
Cultural- people have been burning wood and other material for heating and cooking needs for many years, and many still do so. Over time it has become natural for these people to do so and is currently spreading all over the world. Because using biomass is part of their lifestyle itself, and the science behind it, ties into culture.
Environmental- since biomass is a renewable resource, we've found yet another way to use an energy source that will be around forever. The science behind it gives us a way to get and use energy while helping our environment. It reduces CO2, methane, global warming, greenhouse gases, and works just as well as other energy sources.
Politics- a lot of people are for, and want biomass because it helps the environment,
is cheap, easy to come by, and very effective.