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Chapter 7: Particulate Nature of Matter

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Transcript of Chapter 7: Particulate Nature of Matter

in terms of their arrangement
in terms of conversion of the 3 states of matter
of expansion and contraction of matter
During expansion and contraction, the distance of the particles changes, although the volume of the matter changes, the number of the particles do not change so the mass of matter is conserved during either processes
Properties of particles
Definition
Melting and Boiling
Expansion
Expansion is when matter is heated, the particles start to vibrate more vigorously and they move slightly further apart from one another. This causes the volume of matter to increase.
Contraction
Contraction is when matter is cooled, the particles vibrate less vigorously and move closer to one another. This causes the volume of matter to decrease.
Melting
When a solid is heated. the particles vibrate more vigorously and when it reaches the melting point, the solid changes to a liquid state.

Boiling
When a liquid is heated, the particles vibrate more vigorously and when it reaches boiling point, the liquid changes to a gaseous state.
2 Opal
Done By: Irfan , Farris, Yuan Jen, Wen Xing, Ying Zi
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Arrangement and movement of the particles
Matter in their three states
in terms of conversion of the 3 states of matter
Freezing and Condensation
Matter is made up of small discrete particles.

Solid
The particles are held together by very strong forces of attraction, they vibrate about in their fixed positions. The particles are packed very closely together in a regular pattern.

Liquid
The particles are held together by strong forces of attraction and they are able to slide pass one another. They are packed closely together and do not have a fixed or regular pattern.

Gas
The particles are held together by weak forces of attraction, they are able to move randomly about . They are far apart from one another and has no fixed or regular pattern.
Freezing
When a liquid is cooled, the particles move much slower and return to their fixed positions. The liquid then changes into solid state.

Condensation
When a gas is cooled, the particles move much slower and closer to one another, they move less randomly. The gas changes into liquid state when the particles attract one another and move closer.
Particulate Nature of Matter
Solid has a definite shape and volume and it cannot be compressed as the particles are closely packed.

Liquid has no definite shape as the particles are able to slide pass one another but it has a fixed volume and it cannot be compressed.

Gas has no definite shape and volume but it can be compressed as the particles are far apart.
Melting
Boiling
The Brownian Motion was named after Robert Brown, a scientist who studied plants. During his research, he observed a pollen grain suspended in water and moved on its own, he ruled out the hypothesis that pollen grain motion was due to the pollen being alive but he was unable to explain the motion.
Albert Einstein later then discovered the motion was caused by the collision between water particles and the pollen grain.
Brownian Motion
The water particles are always moving but it is not visible to the naked eye, and when the particles collide with the pollen grain, the pollen grain that can be seen appears to be moving on its own.
water particle
Pollen
Grain
Definition of matter:
Matter is any substance that has mass and occupies space
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