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Atomic Theory Timeline
Transcript of Atomic Theory Timeline
all matter consist of tiny particles
atoms are indestructible & unchangeable
elements are characterized by the mass of their atoms
when elements react, their atoms combine in simple, whole number ratios
when elements react, their atoms sometimes combine in more than one simple whole, number ratio
His Atomic Structure consist of:
no atomic model
Law of Conservation
Law of Definite Proportions
Law of Multiple Proportions
Dalton had a notable student named, James Prescott Joule. After having two strokes, on July 27th, 1844 Dalton fell from his bed & was found lifeless by his attendant. In honor of his work, many chemist & biochemist use the until Dalton "as yet unofficial" to denote one atomic mass unit or 1 1/2 the weight of the neutral atom of carbon-12. There is also a John Dalton Street, a building in Manchester Metropolitan University named after him, a residence hall called Dalton Hall at the University of Manchester, the Dalton Township in southern Ontario was named after Dalton, & there are still many more. A lot of his work that was collected was destroyed during the bombing of Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society on December 24th, 1940. His records were in safe keeping for about a century until World War ll bombing of Manchester. Whats left of his records remain in the John Rylands Library. Dalton is known for the Atomic Theory, Law of Multiple Proportions, Dalton's Law of partial Pressure, & Daltonism. Dalton was influenced by John Gough. Joesph John Thompson Joesph John Thompson also known as J.J. Thompson was born on December 18, 1856 in Cheetham Hill, Manchester, England. He was a British physicist & Nobel laureate. He discovered electrons, isotopes, & invented the mass spectrometer. In 1906 Thompson was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of electrons & the conduction of electricity in gases. His education began in small private schools where he showed an interest in science. At the age of 14 in 1870 he was admitted to Owens College. After the death of his father in 1873 he moved to Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1884 Thompson became Cavendish Professor of Physics. Scientist like, William Prout & Norman Lockyer suggested that atoms were built up from a more fundamental unit & envisioned the unit to be the size of the smallest atom which is Hydrogen. Thompson in 1897 suggested that the fundamental unit was over 1000 times smaller than the atom which in that case suggested the subatomic particles now called electrons. He discovered this through the properties of cathode ray. The beam of electrons deflected toward positive plate-electron has a negative charge. The amount of deflection-mass to charge ratio. Since there were positive charges & negative charges he created the Plum Pudding Model. Later he was proved wrong by his student Ernest Rutherford. Rutherford showed the positive charge concentrated in the nuclus of the atom. Thompson died August 30, 1940. His academic advisors were John Strutt & Edward John Routh. Thompson's students were people such as: Charles Glover Barkla, Charles T. R. Wilson, Ernest Rutherford, Francis William Aston, John Townsend, J Robert Oppenheimer, Owen Richardson, William Henry Bragg, H. Stanley Allen, John Zeleny, Daniel Frost Comstock, Max Born, T. H. Laby, Paul Langevin, Balthasar van der Pol, & Geoffrey Ingram Taylor. Thompson was known for the Plum Pudding Model, discovery of electrons, discovery of isotopes, & Mass Spectrometer Invention. Some awards he got were Royal Medal, Hughes Medal, Nobel Prize for Physics, Elliot Cresson Medal, Copley Medal, & the Franklin medal. Ernest Rutherford Ernest Rutherford was born on August 30, 1871 in Brightwater, New Zealand. He was a british chemist & physicist & was known as the father of nuclear physics. In 1911 he discovered positively charged nucleus. His experimental design used gold foil & detector ring, fired alpha particles at foil which are positively charged, most went thorough-atom mostly empty space, some deflected-nucleus positively charged, & some bounced back-solid mass indicates nuclear core. Rutherford's atomic structure is the Nuclear Atomic model. In 1937 Rutherford died & was honored with many things, one being entered as the Greatest Scientist of the United Kingdom. There was also an element on the periodic table named after him called, 'rutherfordium' (element 104) in 1997. Rutherford had academic advisors such as Alexander Bickerton, & J.J. Thompson. He has students like Neils Bohr, James Chadwick, Bertram Boltwood, & John Cockcroft. Rutherford was known for Father of Physics, Rutherford Model, Discovery of a Proton, the Rutherford unit, & many more. Awards that he was given were the Rumford Medal, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Elliot Cression Medal, Matteucci Medal, Copley Medal, & the Franklin Medal. Francis Bacon Francis Bacon was born on January 22, 1561 in Strand, London, England. he was an English philosopher, statesmen, scientist, jurist, & author. In England he served as an Attorney General, & Lord Chancellor. As an education he started out home schooled & from a graduate of Oxford, John Walsall gave tuition to Bacon & with that at age 12, Bacon entered Trinity College, Cambridge but also educated at University of Poitiers. At Cambridge he met Queen Elizabeth who called him, "the young Lord Keeper". People also know him as 'Father of Experimental Science." Bacon was the creator of empiricism. It established & popularised inductive methodologies for scientific inquiry which is often called Baconian Method, or the simplest way, scientific method. Bacon was influenced by Democritus, Plato, & Aristotle. Bacon died April 9, 1626 William Crookes William Crookes was born on June 17, 1832 in London, England who was a british chemist & physicists, & went to the Royal College of Chemistry, London. He worked on spectroscopy invented vacuum tubes which were also called Crookes tube. He studied Physical Chemistry & between 1850-1854 he got put with the position of assistant in college. His inspiration for chemistry began with his teacher named, August Wilhem von Hofmann. After leaving the Royal College, in 1854 Crookes became prostitute of the "Boats'nHoes" department at the Radcliffe Observatory in Oxford. In 1855 he was "appointed lecturer in chemistry at the Chester Diocesan Training College." Crookes discovered an unknown element in 1861 with a bright green emission line in it's spectrum that was named thallium, he also discovered helium in 1895.Crookes invented 'Crookes radiometer He also developed the Crookes tubes, investigating cathode rays In his investigations of the conduction of electricity in low pressure gases, he discovered that as the pressure was lowered, the negative electrode (cathode) appeared to emit rays (the so-called "cathode rays", now known to be a stream of free electrons, and used in cathode ray display devices). In 1879, as a consequence, he was one of the first scientist to investigate what are now plasmas & identified it as the fourth state of matter. Another thing he came up with was one of the first instruments for the study of nuclear radioactivity which is called the Spinthariscope. After the passing of Crookes wife, 2 years later he died in London on April 4, 1919. An award he got was the Elliot Cresson medal, & known for Thallium. Niels Bohr Niels Bohr was born October 7, 1885 in Copenhagen, Denmark. He enrolled as an undergraduate at Copenhagen university originally going to study for philosophy & mathematics. In 1905 he was sponsored to do several experiments to examine the "properties of surface tension". Due to winning he decided to drop philosophy & go with physics instead. He stayed as a graduate student at the University of Copenhagen & in 1911 he got his doctorate. As a "post-doctoral student" he began experimenting with J.J. Thompson at Trinity, College, Cambridge & the Cavendish Laboratory & then in 1912, met & joined Ernest Rutherford at Manchester University where he spent four years. After, in 1916, Bohr went back home permanently to the University of Copenhagen where he was offered to the "Chair of Theoretical Physics" (which was created for him). Two years later, in 1918 Bohr began to established the "University Institute of Theoretical Physics" which he later began to direct in 1921. He was a danish physicist who made up the "foundational contributions" to understanding the atomic structure & quantum mechanics & with those two things he received a Nobel Prize in Physics in the year 1922. Bohr "collaborated & mentored" with many of the top physicist of the century at the University of Copenhagen. His experimental design was a mathematical model, needed to explain why negatively charged electrons do not get absorbed into positively charged nucleus, used information from Balmer, Lyman, & Paschen series, & emission spectra for hydrogen explained by Rydberg equation. He had a student named Hendrik Anthony Kramers, academic advisors like Ernest Rutherford & J.J. Thompson, his influences were Ernest Rutherford & Harald Hoffding. Bohr influenced people like, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, & Paul Dirac. Besides the Nobel Prize in Physics, Bohr was also awarded with the Franklin Medal. Henri Becquerel Henri Becquerel was born on Decemeber 15, 1852 in Paris, France. Becquerel was a french physicist, Nobel laureate, & discovered radioactivity with Marie Sklodowska-Curie & Pierre Curie. All 3 of them won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903. His education were at the institutes Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, Ecole Polytechnique, Museum National d'Historie Naturelle. He spent most of his time in France & is known for the discovery of radioactivity. He liked to study chemistry, & physics, & his student was Marie Curie. The year of his death, 1908, Becquerel was elected Permanent Secretary of the Academie des Sciences. Pierre & Marie Curie Pierre Curie was born on May 15, 1859 in Paris, France. He was a French physicist & is also known for radioactivity. For education he was home schooled in the beginning & showed early signs of math & geometry. When he was 16 he earned his math degree & by the time he was 18 he completed everything for a higher degree but couldn't get it immediately due to lack of money problems so instead he worked as a laboratory instructor. Pierre studied ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism & discovered paramagnetism which is now known as Curie's Law. He also discovered ferromagnetic substances exhibited a critical temperature transition, above which the substances lost their ferromagnetic behavior & this is now called Curie Point. He also discovered nuclear energy with one of his students. He had students like Paul Langevin, Andre-Louis Debierne, & Marguerite Catherine Perey. He died in a street accident in April 1906.
Marie Curie was born on November 7, 1867 in Warsaw, Kingdom of Poland/Part of Russian Empire. She was a French-Polish physicist & chemist & is also known for radioactivity. After figuring out polonium & radium she named the first element she discovered which was polonium. She is the first women to win a Nobel Prize in Physics & to win in two fields which were, physics & chemistry, & was the first to be a female professor at the University of Paris. She also went to the University of Paris for school & had an academic advisor named Henri Becquerel. She is known for the discovery of radioactivity, polonium, & radium. Some awards she had gotten besides the Nobel Prize in Physics is a Davy Medal, Matteucci Medal, & the Nobe Prize in Chemistry. A few students she had were, Andre-Louis Debierne, Oscar Moreno, & Marguerite Catherine Perey. Marie died on July 4, 1934 from aplastic anemia contracted from her long-term exposure to radiation.
After Pierre & Marie got married, Pierre worked with his wife to figure out isolating polonium and radium. Together they won a Nobel Prize in Physics. Both spent most of their lives in France & had 2 kids. James Chadwick Frederic & Irene Joliot-Curie Frederic Joliot-Curie was born on March 19, 1900 in Paris, France. He was a French physicist and Nobel laureate. Federic was a graduate of the École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris. At the Radium Institute, he was student of Marie Curie & became an assistant. Frederic "fell in love" with Mari's daughter, Irene Curie. After they got married they both changed their last name to Joliot-Curie. Frederic got a bachelor's degree, doctorate in science, & did a thesis on the electrochemistry of radio-elements. He worked with his wife on research of the structure of an atom. In particular on the "projection, or recoil", the nuclei that had been struck by other particles, which was an essential step in the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick in 1932. Frederic & Irene were awarded with the Nobel Prize of Chemistry for their discovery in "artificial radioactivity" in 1935. In 1937 he left the Radium Institute to become a professor at the Collège de France working on chain reactions and the requirements for the successful construction of a nuclear reactor that uses controlled nuclear fission to generate energy through the use of uranium and heavy water. He was known for the atomic nuclei. Frederic died on August 14, 1958.
Irene Joloit-Curie was born on September 12, 1897 in Paris, France. She was a french scientist who was daughter of Pierre & Marie Curie. Irene studied chemistry. After "traditional education", which she started when she was 10, her parents noticed that she had "obvious mathematical talent" & decided her academic abilities needed to be in a more advanced enviorment. She later was asked after she got her doctorate in 1924 to to teach the precise laboratory techniques required for radiochemical research to the her mom's studient, a chemical engineer Frédéric Joliot who she later married in 1962. They combined their research interests on the study of atomic nuclei. Though their experiments identified both the positron and the neutron, they failed to interpret the significance of the results and the discoveries were later claimed by Carl David Anderson and James Chadwick respectively. Together they helped discover electrons with J.J. Thompson in 1897 which replaced John Dalton's theory of atoms being a solid spherical particles. On March 17, 1956 Irene died. Her advisor was Paul Langevin & Irene was know for the transmutation of elements. Robert Millikan Robert Andrews Millikan was born on March 22, 1868 in Morrison, Illinois, U.S.A. He was an American experimental physicist, & Nobel laureate in physics for his "measurement of the charge on the electron & for his work on the photoelectric effect." Millikan went to high school in Maquoketa, Iowa. In 1891, he received a bachelor's degree from Oberlin College, & his doctorate in physics from Columbia University in 1895 & was the first to earn a PhD from that department. Starting in 1908, while a professor at the University of Chicago, Millikan worked on an oil-drop experiment. He measured the charge on a single electron, J.J. Thomson had already discovered the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron. However, the actual charge and mass values were unknown. In that case, if one of these two values were to be discovered, the other could easily be calculated. Millikan and his graduate student at the time, Harvey Fletcher used the oil-drop experiment to measure the charge of the electron. Millikan took "sole credit" in return for Harvey Fletcher claiming "authorship on a related result for his dissertation." Millikan went on in 1923 & won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his part in the work. A couple of his advisors were Michael I. Pupin & Albert Michelson, a few students he had were Chung-Yao Chao, Robley D. Evans, & Harvey Fletcher. Millikan is known for the charge of electrons, & advanced cosmic ray physics. Besides the Nobel Prize in Physics award, he got a Comstock Prize, & a Franklin Medal. Millikan died in December 19, 1953 from a heart attack. In his honor he has a suburb, the tallest building on the Caltech campus, a street, a suite at a hotel named after him. He was also honored by the United States Postal Service with a 37 cents "Great Americans series" postage stamp that lasted 1980-2000. James Chadwick was born on October 20, 1891 in Bollington, Cheshire, England. He was an English Nobel laureate in physics & awarded for his discovery of the neutron. Chadwick attended the Bollington Cross C of E Primary School and the Central Grammar School for Boys in Manchester, and studied at the universities of Manchester and Cambridge. In 1913, Chadwick entered the Technical University of Berlin, studying under "Hans Geiger & Sir Ernest Rutherford" on an 1851 "Research Fellowship." Chadwick was in Germany while World War I was happening, & he was "detained" in the Ruthlebun interment camp near Berlin. While being interned, he was allowed to set up a laboratory table in the "stables." With help from Charles D. Ellis, he worked on the ionization of phosphorus and on the photochemical reaction of carbon monoxide and chlorine. He spent most of the war years in Ruhleben until Geiger's laboratory "interceded" for his release. In 1932 Chadwick discovered a previously unknown particle in the atomic nucleus. This particle was first predicted by Ettore Majorana and has come to be known as the neutron because of its lack of electric charge. Chadwick's discovery was crucial for understanding the nuclear fission of uranium 235. Unlike the positively-charged alpha particles, which are repelled by the electrical forces present in the nuclei of other atoms, neutrons do not need to overcome any "Coulomb barrier" and can therefore penetrate and enter the nuclei of even the heaviest elements such as uranium-235 and plutonium. For Chadwick's discovery of the neutron in 1932, he was awarded the Hughes Medal of the Royal Society in 1932 and the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1935. Chadwick’s discovery of the neutron also made it possible to produce elements heavier than uranium in the laboratory, by the capture of "slow neutrons followed by beta decay." In 1935, Chadwick became professor of physics at the University of Liverpool. As a result of the "Frisch–Peierls memorandum" in 1940 on the feasibility of an atomic bomb, he was appointed to the MAUD Committee that investigated the matter further. He visited North America as part of the "Tizard Mission" in 1940 to collaborate with the Americans and Canadians on nuclear research. Returning to England in November 1940, he concluded that nothing would emerge from this research until after the war. December 1940 Franz Simon, who had been commissioned by MAUD, reported that it was possible to separate the isotope uranium-235. Simon's report included cost estimates and technical specifications for a large uranium enrichment plant. James Chadwick later wrote that it was at that time that he "realised that a nuclear bomb was not only possible, it was inevitable. I had to then take sleeping pills. It was the only remedy." Shortly afterward, he joined the United States in the Manhattan Project, that developed the two atomic bombs that were dropped on the Japanese Empire which ended World War II in mid-August 1945. In 1940, Chadwick had "forwarded" to the Royal Society the technical reports of two French scientists, Hans Von Halban and Lew Kowarski who were working in Cambridge. He asked that the papers be held in secret since they were not appropriate for publication during the war. But in 2007, members of the staff of the Royal Society discovered the documents during an audit of its archives. Chadwick died on July 24, 1974 in Cambridge, England. His academic advisors were Ernest Rutherford & Hans Geiger, students were Maurice Goldhaber, Ernest C. Pollard, & Charles Drummond Ellis. Another award he had gotten was the Franklin Medal. And Quantum Theory Timeline Johannes Rydberg Johannes Rydberg was born on November 8, 1854 in Halmstad. He was a Swedish physicist mainly known for devising the Rydberg formula. In 1888, he used his formula to predict the "wavelengths of photons (of light and other electromagnetic radiation) emitted by changes in the energy level of an electron in a hydrogen atom." The Rydberg constant & the Rydberg unit is named after him. Atoms with very high values of the "principal quantum number, represented by n in the Rydberg formula, are called Rydberg atoms." Rydberg's anticipated that the spectral studies could assist in a theoretical understanding of the atom. Its chemical properties was "justified" in 1913 by the work of Niels Bohr. "An important spectroscopic constant based on a hypothetical atom of infinite mass is called the Rydberg (R) in his honor." Rydberg worked at Lund University, Sweden all his "working life." He died December 28, 1919 & was honored with a crater named Rydberg, & an asteroid named 10506 Rydberg after him. And every Wednesday night at Lund University there is a pub night. Max Planck Albert Einstein Louis de Brogile Werner Heisenberg Erwin Schrödinger Max Planck was born on April 23, 1858 in Kiel, Duchy of Holstein. He was a German theoretical physicist who originated the quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Plank came from a family with a great-grandfather & grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen. In 1867 his family moved to Munich, and Planck was enrolled in the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich gymnasium school, where he came under the "tutelage" of Hermann Müller, a mathematician who took an interest in the youth, and taught him astronomy and mechanics as well as mathematics. Müller taught Planck the first principle of conservation of energy. This is just apart of how Planck got into physics & graduated at age 17. The Munich professor named, Philipp von Jolly told Planck that he shouldn't go into physics because, "in this field, almost everything is already discovered, and all that remains is to fill a few holes." Planck answered with not wanting to find new discoveries but "to understand the known fundamentals of the field." In 1874 he began his studies at University of Munich. Planck performed the only experiments of his scientific career under Jolly's supervision. He studied the diffusion of hydrogen through heated platinum, but transferred to theoretical physics. Planck went to Berlin in 1877 for a year to study with physicist Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Kirchhoff and mathematician Karl Weierstrass. While in Berlin he "undertook" a self-study program of Clausius's writings, which led him to choose heat theory as his field.In October 1878 Planck passed his qualifying exams and in February 1879 defended his "dissertation." In April 1885 the University of Kiel "appointed" Planck as associate professor of theoretical physics. He has students such as Walther Meissner, Walter Schottky, Max von Laue, Max Abraham, Moritz Schlick, & Walther Both, & his doctoral advisor was Alexander von Brill. Planck died in October 4, 1947 & was known for the Planck Constant, Planck Postulate, & Planck's law of black body radiation. He got awards like the Nobel Prize in Physics, "Pour le Mérite", Lorentz Medal, Franklin Medal, "Adlerschild des Deutschen Reiches", Max Planck Medal, & Copley Medal. He recieved honorary doctorates from the universities of Frankfurt, Munich (TH), Rostock, Berlin (TH), Graz, Athens, Cambridge, London, and Glasgow. And in his honor asteroid 1069 was named "Stella Planckia" by the International Astronomical Union. Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire & was a German theoretical physicist. In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where his father and his uncle founded "Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie", a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current. Einstein went to Catholic elementary school starting at age five for three years. When he was eight, Einstein was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until seven years later when he left to Germany. After Einsteins father showed him a pocket compass he "realized" that there must be something causing the needle to move, besides the "empty space." As Einstein got older he began to build models & mechanical devices for fun which showed he had "talent" in mathematics. At ten years old, Einstein met Max Talmud who visited weekly for five years, gave Einstein popular books on science, mathematical texts and philosophical writings. After Einsteins family business fail he moved to Milan, then Pavia, Italy & then Munich, Germany. Einstein stayed at Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Although Einsteins father wanted him to go for electrical engineering, Einstein "clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method." At the end of December 1894, he traveled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note. In late summer 1895, at the age of sixteen, Einstein sat the entrance examinations for the Swiss Federal Polytechnic in Zurich. He failed the required standard in several subjects, but kept up exceptional grades in physics and mathematics. In 1895-96 he went to Aargau Cantonal School in Aarau, Switzerland to finish up secondary schooling. In September 1896, he passed the Swiss Matura with mostly good grades (including a top grade of 6 in physics and mathematical subjects, on a scale of 1-6) and, even though he was only seventeen, he enrolled in the four-year mathematics and physics teaching diploma program at the ETH Zurich. Einstein died on April 18, 1955 in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. He was known for many things such as General relativity and special relativity, Photoelectric effect, Mass-energy equivalence, Theory of Brownian Motion, Einstein field equations, Bose–Einstein statistics, Bose-Einstein condensate, Bose–Einstein correlations, Unified Field Theory, & EPR paradox. Some awards he got for all this were things like the Nobel Prize in Physics, Matteucci Medal, Copley Medal, Max Planck Medal, & Time Person of the Century. A couple of his advisors were Alfred Kleiner & Heinrich Friedrich Weber. A few students he had were Ernst G. Straus, Nathan Rosen, Leó Szilárd, & Raziuddin Siddiqui. The institutes were places like Swiss Patent Office (Bern), University of Zurich, Charles University in Prague, ETH Zurich, Prussian Academy of Sciences, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, University of Leiden, & the Institute for Advanced Study. Another thing Einstein had was citizenship & it was in just one country. He had citizenship in Württemberg/Germany, Stateless, Switzerland, Austria , Germany,& United States.