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Transcript of Eating Disorders
The goal is to alter knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with eating disorders by:
5 Research Based Recommendations for Healthcare Providers
Increasing positive protectors such as
appreciation for body's functionality
Universal Prevention is a method that is aimed at the general public in order to
promote healthy development
understand causes of eating disorders
stop eating disorders before they develop
Targeted prevention is a method aimed at people beginning to show signs of eating disorders
programs using cognitive dissonance have shown to be very effective with adolescents and young women
1. Discourage unhealthy dieting
2. Promote positive body image
3.Encourage frequent and enjoyable family meals
4. Families talk less about weight and more about healthy eating/ physical activity
5. Assume overweight teens have experienced weight mistreatment an address the issue with the teens
Treatment for eating disorders is made most effective through early detection and intervention.
Most effective treatments attend to nutritional, medical and psychiatric needs of the patient.
The goal of treatment is for the patient to be able to live peacefully and healthfully with food as well as with himself/herself
Types of Therapy
Outpatient: individual, group, family therapy, medical management
Hospital based care: inpatient, partial hospitalization, intensive outpatient, residential care
may be necessary when physical problems or severe psychological problems are involved
Recent research suggests that inherited biological and genetic factors contribute approximately 56% of the risk for developing an eating disorder. However, research is still taking place.
Why did we choose to work in the Eating disorder panel?
Eating Disorder: Any pattern of eating that leads to disruption in behaviors, thinking and mood, thus disrupting ones ability to function any number of areas: interpersonal relationships, social situations, school, work, etc.
Two most commonly talked about:
BUT! There are many others.
Cultural/ Social Factors
- First: Norm for women that thinner is better. Traces back to the 1920's flapper style.
Eating Disorder Awareness Month
February is eating disorder awareness month!
Several overlapping personality factors seen in different kinds eating disorders.
Large role in eating disorders: neuroticism (emotional stability), obsessiveness, and perfectionism.
driven by genetics, predisposed to be more likely to be anxious, depressed, perfectionists, and self-critical
Often lack proper coping skills
Risk Factor Traits:
No trust in self/others
Prone to extremes
Obsessive or impulsive behavior
- Second: affects the sexual behavior of adolescents and gives them the current preoccupation with physical fitness.
-Third: The general sexual permissiveness in society.
- People are valued on physical appearance and not inner qualities or strengths.
- Stress because of discrimination when it comes to race/ethnicity/weight.
Other types of eating disorders:
eating until uncomfortable, eating when not physically hungry, eating rapidly, eating alone for fear of being embarrassed by how much food is being consumed, or feeling disgusted, depressed or guilty after the episode of overeating.
Anorexia Athletica (Hypergymnasia)
- Engage in both excessive workouts and exercising as well as calorie restriction.
- Night eating syndrome-
Hardly eat in the morning or afternoon, mainly eat at night. Most likely to appear in people who are obese.
Eating only pure, or right food.
EDNOS – Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
- Beauty can only be found in specific body weights and shapes.
-Avoid thinking "anorexia is just a plea for attention" or "bulimia is just an addiction to food."
-It is not just a female problem, males can develop eating disorders as well.
- Schools should educate people about this disorder. Trained professionals should be hired to help in schools, community organizations, hospitals, etc.
In some individuals with eating disorders, certain chemicals in the brain that control hunger, appetite, and digestion have been found to be unbalanced. These imbalances are still being investigated but this can also be genetic.
Individuals who have a mother or a sister with anorexia nervosa are approximately twelve times more likely to develop anorexia and four times more likely to develop bulimia than other individuals without a family history of these disorders.
Individuals with anorexia and bulimia in particular tend to compare themselves to unrealistic standards and find themselves lacking.
Sense of fear and dissatisfaction with their appearance drives a renewed cycle of wanting to be thin, like an endless loop.
They are unable to accept suggestions or advice from others.
A need for control
Unable to deal with negative emotions: anger, sadness, or fear
Problem of establishing independence
High expectations of family
Past or current trauma
Problems with identity -- lack of one, not sure who they are
While bulimics may have low levels of serotonin, other studies indicate that anorexics have high levels of neurotransmitters in some areas of the brain.
Alterations in Weight
Preoccupation with body image
Disruptions in eating patterns
Preoccupation with nutritional content of foods
Excessive exercise patterns
Use of laxatives, diet pills or diuretics
Abnormalities in the structure or activity of the hypothalamus, a brain structure responsible for regulating eating behaviors. Hypothalamus of bulimics may not trigger a normal satiation (feeling full or finished) response.
Study by German scientists at Ruhr University Bochum: 10 anorexic women and 10 normal women were shown pictures of silhouettes and asked to choose which one corresponded to their own body shape. The women in the anorexia group judged themselves to be fatter than they were, while the women in the healthy group thought they were thinner. From this study, it was concluded that there were "connection errors" in the brains of the people with anorexia nervosa; weak connections b/w fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) lower density of nerve cells in EBA; weaker the connectivity = fatter they perceive themselves.
Several studies suggest that
personality disorders such as borderline and obsessive-compulsive disorder have a role in eating disorders, those are just 2 that play a role
Twin studies = good to see if disorders are hereditary
A multidimensional study found those with bulimia reported higher levels of stress reactions and negative emotionality, those with binge-eating scored lower on well-being
A study that focused on personality subtypes found 3 types of personalities that were also similar with studies of adults with eating disorders high functioning/perfectionist, emotionally dis regulated, and avoiding/depressant :
"Killing us softly:Advertising image of women" with Jean Kilbourne
The Perfect Image- A documentary
Rates of Recovery: Rule of Thirds
1/3 of patients recover after first episode
1/3 of patients fluctuate between relapse and recovery
1/3 of patients don't recover
Relapse is a natural part of recovery- it does not mean failure.
If one sees signs of a relapse it is best to seek professional help immediately
Preventing relapse is possible by developing self-acceptance, trusting one's support group and receiving help for co-occurent disorders
There are plenty of resources for support during recovery that can be found on the internet. There are forums, blogs, and websites packed with useful information and tips for individuals trying to find a healthy relationship with food.
Reducing negative risk factors such as:
appearance based self-esteem
100% recovery from an eating disorder is possible and the experience differs for every individual. It can take years and requires careful planning.
Prevalence vs. Funding
The key to adequate treatment and therefore recovery from eating disorders is research. Research, however, requires funding.
30 million Americans suffer from eating disorders with $28,000,000 worth of funding. Compare this to Schizophrenia, which affects 3.4 million people, and received$276,000,000 of funding.
That means, that research dollars spent on eating disorders research averages about $0.93 per affected individual.
Only 1 in 10 individuals suffering from eating disorders receive treatment.
It is important to spread awareness about eating disorders so people can seek help, and promote funding.
Obesity: the condition of being very fat or overweight
Obesity is a condition marked by excess accumulation of body fat. Genetic factors play a key role in obesity, but so do behavioral factors — especially eating too much and exercising too little
Obesity can lead to diabetes, heart disease, sleep apnea and other problems. In fact, some researchers believe that obesity is second only to smoking as a preventable cause of death.
Binge Eating Disorder usually leads to obesity although it can occur in normal weight individuals.
BED: an eating disorder categorized by binge eating without purging episodes
Effects on Health
Excessive body weight is associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, and certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and asthma. As a result, obesity has been found to reduce life expectancy.
Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide.
On average, obesity reduces life expectancy by 6 to 7 years.
Obesity increases the risk of many physical and mental conditions.
These comorbidities are most common in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders that includes: diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels.
Obesity is one of the country’s most serious health problems.
Obesity rates for Adults:
• Doubled since 1980
• Increased from 15 to 30 percent
Obesity rates for children:
• Have more than tripled
• Rising rates have significant health consequences that Contribute to increased rates of more than 30 serious diseases.
Nature or Nurture: If these disorders are really inherited by genetics or if they are seen as inherited because it happens within a family environment.