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Sports Nutrition & Supplements

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by

Alex Saxen

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of Sports Nutrition & Supplements

Nutrients
Nutritious Diets & Supplements
Drinks, Lifestyles, and Meals
Weight Control & Body Composition
A Nutritious Diet
carbohydrates
fats
proteins
vitamins
minerals
water
The Nutrients
macronutrient
- the absorbable components of food from which energy is derived
Nutrients
The body's most efficient source of energy
Carbohydrates
essential components of the diet
primary source of energy
saturated fat and transfatty acids are harmful to the body
junk food, meats, fast food, cookies


Fats
Nutrients that may prevent premature aging, certain cancers, heart disease, and other health problems.
Vitamin C & E and beta carotene (found in deep green, deep yellow, or orange vegetables) body turns beta carotene into vitamin A.
Athletes should increase intake of their antioxidants.
Excess beta carotene will turn skin yellow, however, is not toxic like Vitamin A.
Excess Vitamin C will cause irritation to intestines and creates diarrhea.
Antioxidant Nutrients
There are more than 20 mineral elements needed to be supplied to our diets.
Minerals are needed to form strong bones & teeth, generating energy, activating enzymes, & maintaining water balance.
Most are stored in body: bones and liver.
Calcium & Iron most important
Minerals
Calcium: bone and tooth formation, blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve function. Is in dairy products. If deficient then cause osteoporosis. If excess will result in calcium deposits in soft tissues.

Iron: Formation of hemoglobin; energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Sources: meats, dairy products, and other protein rich foods. Unknown excess/deficiency.
Calcium & Iron
Most essential nutrient, human body is 60% water.
Average adult requires 2.5 liters a day of water.
Once you become thirsty water weight has dropped 1-2% and you are already dehydrated.
Dehydration: weak and may become nauseous, vomit, and faint.
Most people only replenish ~50% of water from sweating.
Athletes should drink before, during and after practice or competition to prevent dehydration
Water
Caffeine Consumption
coffee, tea, soda
Pros: Increase in alertness, decrease in fatigue.
Cons: nervousness, irritability, increase heart rate, headaches.
Alcohol
Provides energy
No other real nutritional value
Do not attempt to play sports drunk.
Energy Drink
High consumption
High doses of caffeine
Don't mix red bull and vodka

Drinks
Eating Organic vs. Conventional Grown
Just as nutritious
No major differences
Psychological effect
Eating Natural foods
No additives
Can be dangerous
Vegetarianism
Healthy
Deficiencies in nutrients
Fast Food
Lifestyles
Preevent
Don't just focus on the right before event meal.
Maximize carbohydrates
Liquid food supplements
Glycemic Index (GI)
Indicates the effects of different carbohydrates on blood glucose levels.
Post-Event
High carbohydrate
Pg: 94
Meals
- the fat and non-fat components of the body
non-fat or
lean tissue
includes muscles, tendons, bones, and connective tissue
total body weight composed of fat tissue is your
percent body fat
Body Composition
- Changes in body weight are because of changes in caloric balance.
Caloric Balance= #of calories consumed - # of calories expended
Calories are used up in 3 different ways:
(1) basal metabolism
(2) work -- any activity that requires more energy than sleeping
(3) excretion
Caloric Intake for college athletes typically range between 2,000 and 5,000 calories per day.
Some endurance athletes require up to 7,000 calories per day
Caloric Balance & Weight Loss/Gain

What does a nutritious diet consist of?
• Fruit
• Vegetables
• Grains
• Protein
• Dairy

The diet
• Nutrient Dense Foods are full of vitamins, minerals, and proteins
• Junk food does nothing but tastes good
• If you have a nutritious diet and regular exercise you can occasionally spare a fatty or sugary snack, but maintain it to a snack not a whole meal

Supplements, pills and weight lose/muscle gain aids:
• Most drinks, pills and other supplements are really useful psychologically; they help boost your psychological thoughts and needs to workout.

Deficiency:
• Athletes can be deficient in vitamins and minerals such as calcium and iron.
• These deficiencies can cause osteoporosis, decrease in bone density and lactose deficiency

Necessities:
• Protein and Creatine
• Supplementing the human body with creatine can cause weight gain, muscle cramping, gastrointestinal disturbances and renal dysfunction
• Positives of creatine are mainky psychological like increase in workout intensity





Sports Nutrition and Supplements
The need for gain or loss of weight in athletes is difficult to change because of instilled eating habits, knowing what is involved in being conscious about how you eat can help with the changes they need to partake in to reach their goal.
Body Fat Averages for college students:
females:
20-25% body fat
males:
12-15% body fat
female athletes:
10-18% body fat
male athletes:
8-12% body fat
*it is recommended that body fat percentages do not go below 5% in males and 12% in females
Methods to assess body composition:
-skinfold test
-bioelectrical impedence
Electrolytes:
Sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, and calcium.
Electrically charged ions in solution.
Maintain balance of water outside of cell. Required when an individual is unfit, suffers from extreme weight loss, or has just exercised.
Loss of electrolytes primarily are responsible for muscle cramping and heat intolerance.

Nutrients perform three major roles
grow, repair, and maintain body cells
regulate body processes
supply energy from cells
carbohydrates, proteins, fats
micronutrient
- necessary nutrients for normal body function
water, vitamins, minerals
Dietary Recommendations
carbohydrates 55-60 percent
fats 25-30 percent
proteins 15 percent
Simple Carbohydates
digested quickly
contains refined sugars and few vitamins & minerals
fruits, juice, milk, yogurt
Complex Carbohydrates
longer to digest
packed with fiber, vitamins, and minerals
vegetables, bread, cereals, pasta
recommended that athletes eat most of these
The recommended intake of fats is less than 25% of total calories, with saturated fat reduced to less than 10% of the total calories
Proteins
basic unit is an amino acid
essential proteins must be in proper proportion to promote growth and repair
foods that contain essential amino acids: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, beans
Vitamins
play a critical role in tissue healing and repair
fat-soluble
: dissolve in fats, stored in body
Vitamins A, E, D, K
too much of these are potentially toxic
water-soluble
: dissolve in watery solution, not stored
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
building bones, maintaining tissue and holds muscles together
B-complex vitamins
Positive caloric balance=
weight GAIN
Negative caloric balance=
weight LOSS
It is irrelevant whether you get your calories from fat, carbohydrate, or protein; caloric balance is determined by the number of calories consumed.
Carbs= 4 cal/g
Protein= 4 cal/g
Fat= 9 cal/g
Alcohol= 7 cal/g*
* Alcohol should not be considered a macronutrient
The most efficient method of
decreasing body fat
is through a combination of diet and exercise!
Aim to lose 1.5-2 lbs per week -- anything more can be unsafe
Dynamic exercise of large muscles helps maintain fat-free tissue
Maintaining weight control and body fat levels requires a
lifetime commitment
Focus of gaining weight should be to increase lean body mass:
1) muscle work
2) dietary intake
1-2 pounds per week, typically adding 500-1000 calories/day
weight training is a must
To balance calories as well as to maintain a healthy lifestyle:
• Don’t oversize your portions of food.
• Have at least ½ of your meal be fruits and vegetables.
• Change choice of milk to Fat free and 1% milk.
• Make half of your grain intake be whole grains.
• Watch how much salt you have in the foods you eat. Don’t overdo it.
• Drink LOTS of water.
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