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Social Cognitive Theory
Transcript of Social Cognitive Theory
Theory Theory Summary What is it? It is a perspective that can help us understand what and how people learn by observing others and how, in the process, they begin to take control of their own behavior (Ormrod, 2011, p.323). Theory Assumptions People can learn by observing others (Ormrod, 2011, p.324) Learning is an internal process that may or may not lead to a behavior change (Ormrod, 2011, p.324) Cognitive processes influence motivation as well as learning (Ormrod, 2011, p.324) People and their environments mutually influence each other (Ormrod, 2011, p.324) Behavior becomes increasingly self-regulated (Ormrod, 2011, p.325) Theory Strengths Proves that modeling and praise of students can motivate students to learn Behavior becomes regulated Theory Weaknesses The theory does not display the child’s actual cognitive development. The students influence on how modeling is absorbed, processed and worked out through time is nearly nonexistent. The child is seen only as a sponge, absorbing information through modeling. Theory Application “Four conditions are necessary before a student can successfully learn from observing modeled behavior: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation.” (Ormrod, 2011, p.333) Attention Retention Motor Reproduction Motivation “To learn effectively, the learner must pay attention to the model.” (Ormrod, 2011, p.333)
“After paying attention, the learner must remember what the model does.” (Ormrod, 2011, p.333) “In addition to attending and remembering, the learner must be physically capable of reproducing the modeled behavior.” (Ormrod, 2011, p.333) “The learner must be motivated to demonstrate the modeled behavior.” (Ormrod, 2011, p.333) Students were told to pay attention to other students.
Students were put into groups of two to discuss the printing press.
The teacher instructed them to tell the class what their partner said.
Afterwards, the class formed a circle to discuss the printing press as a whole group.
Students were required to pay attention to each other in order to give feedback on others’ thoughts in addition to their own.
In order for the students to give feedback on others’ thoughts and build on top of each other’s ideas, student had to retain the information they were hearing. When students gave their input, they would usually start with: “I agree with…” or “I disagree with...” While the video does not show a specific example of motor reproduction, it can be assumed that because they are in fourth grade, they have learned how to move their desks into a circle when the teacher directs them to do so. Many of the students seemed eager to give their thoughts and feedback.
Students anxiously raised their hands to participate in the discussion about the printing press, how it affects them, and how it would affect them if it was not invented.
The students were motivated to discuss this because the subject affected them directly.
Components of Self-Regulated Behavior Self-determined Standards and goals After the partner pairing the students were asked to relay what their partner’s ideas were about the printing press.
This demonstrates “emerging self-regulated learning strategies” (Ormord, 2011 p 343) by having the students attend to what their partner was saying and then needing to provide that information to the class in their own words. By having the students sit in a circle and input their own ideas as to how life would be different if the printing press were not invented and reflect upon the previous responses provided by their classmates [“listen and respond to each others ideas about the passage” (Canoga Park Video, n.d., 2:50)] and the opportunity to agree or disagree with others ideas or spurn a new idea based upon someone else's idea. Emotion regulation • Here the students have learned they must control emotions so their responses are received positively. The first student called on in the video during the partner exercise explained that his partner felt that if the printing press was not invented, only the wealthy would have access to books and therefore the only ones able to receive an education, and those who were “poor” would not be familiar with reading or writing. The idea of only the wealthy having access to information could be upsetting to some students based upon their reflection into their own class status. Without emotional regulation in place this could possibly come across in the students responses. Cognitive Modeling The teacher in the video repeats the instructions at least twice before handing over the assignment to the students, but not necessarily repeated before calling on the next student (think, pair, share segment of the video). Overt, external guidance Here, if the teacher was to repeat the instructions while the student was actually speaking, that would be rude. Instead, after the student finishes his or her comments/thoughts, the teacher may make a comment to remind the students of some portion of the instructions (such as “Remember you are not just talking to me. Make sure everyone hears you.”; “Go ahead and pick someone else.”). Self-monitoring/Self-observation As the students speak, and based upon their pauses, one can presume they are thinking about the goal of their comment/statement, and as they hear themselves speak they will make the necessary adjustments and corrections. When all four factors are present, modeling can be very effective. Modeling not only teaches new behaviors and skills, it can also boost self-confidence. It shows students that they are capable and can accomplish challenging tasks, i.e. promotes self-efficacy. Person Environment Behavior Also, each input the students make in their classrooms and to other classmates will be a learning experience for them that they can use for future reference. Lesson
Redesign Mr. Hogan could initially bring the class together and encourage the students to help him set their own goals and what they expect from the reading comprehension lesson. As a class, the students will help Mr. Hogan address and set standards/goals for what they should aim to accomplish in the next part of the lesson. Faded, overt self-guidance will be used - the written instructions will be written and displayed on the board so that the students are able to refer the them when needed Break the students up into groups of four for debate: Internet vs. Television vs. Printing Press 3 groups of 3 for each topic
Examine historical and cultural relevance, why it is important, timeline, how did it come about, how has it impacted our culture, how do they continue to impact our daily lives
Which one more important, is one more important, does one impact us more than the other, is one a better medium or a more efficient medium - Mr. Hogan will be walking around from group to group listening and adding thoughts/leading questions when necessary.
Students will be encouraged to discuss and talk during this group work time Self-instructions may be seen here. Children tend to talk themselves through certain situations to help remember not only their point about the assigned topic, but the other students' viewpoints to agree or disagree with as required per the instructions. Each group will present their research and information to the rest of the class - Each student presents 1 minute - Open up to
class discussion At the end of the class discussion students reflect (in their journals) upon what they learned and how their learning experience corresponded with their expectations Faded, overt self-guidance will be used - the instructions will be written and displayed on the board so that the students are able to refer to them when needed Mr. Hogan will also provide a sheet for the students to assess their own performance in the small group and allow them to evaluate themselves and how well they contributed to group discussion, project, participation, etc. Mr. Hogan will use the same criteria sheet that the students used to make his own assessment based on what he observed and listened as he went between groups. He will also read the students journal entries to help make his assessment. Ormrod, Jeanne. (2011). Educational psychology: Developing learners (7th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Explore. Get Motivated. Learn. (2011). Retrieved February 8, 2012 from http://youtu.be/tKf-NDhgST0. References Parthenia Street School. (n.d.) Reading Comprehension Strategies [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.2sc.usc.edu/course/view.php?id=2838&modtype=assignment&modid=208358 Explore. Get Motivated. Learn. (2011). Retrieved February 8, 2012 from http://youtu.be/tKf-NDhgST0. Created by: Fouhy, Christa
Williams, Brittany for University of Southern California
EDUC: 518 Application of Theories of Learning to Classroom Practice
February 9, 2012