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Beef and Dairy Unit
Transcript of Beef and Dairy Unit
Cattle = Cow
General Meat Carcass Information
A. Beef, pork, lamb and goat animals that are processed before 2 years of age typically yield higher quality meat. Older animals are also processed, but quality of meat is usually lower.
B. After following humane guidelines for stunning an animal, the carcass is bled out and hung upside down on a rail for further processing.
C. Animals are initially processed into wholesale or “primal” cuts. These wholesale cuts are then broken into either subprimal cuts and/or a variety of retail cuts.
1. Beef Example
i. Wholesale/Primal: chuck.
ii. Subprimal: blade.
iii. Retail: blade steak.
2. Pork Example
i. Wholesale/Primal: loin.
ii. Subprimal: tenderloin.
iii. Retail: loin chops.
A. Breeds are categorized by their phenotypic traits:
1. Color and/or color patterns.
2. Frame and size-heavy versus light boned, tall versus short, long body versus short body, etc.
3. Degree of muscling- amount of muscle overall as well as more muscle in a particular section of the animal such as the hindquarter.
4. Environmental adaptations- extra skin to improve heat tolerance and insect resistance
These breeds are bred for muscle size, muscle quality, marbling, overall build, and mothering ability.
Origin is Scotland
Most registered breed
High carcass quality.
Red with white face
Horn or may be polled
Origin is England
Horned or Polled Hereford
White to light straw color
Origin is France
Larger in stature.
Light gray to black
Origin is India
Resistant to insects
Tolerant to heat.
No set color pattern
Rapid growing animals
5/8 Shorthorn and 3/8 Brahman.
A deep cherry-red color has been established in the breed.
Relatively high degree of both heat and tick resistance.
Their characteristics include ease of calving, good mothering ability and abundant milk supply.
Noted for their weight for age and ability to achieve high weight gains both on pasture and in feedlots.
Originated in what is now Texas
Holds the record for longest horn length 9 feet and 1 inch long.
High Drought and Stress Tolerance
No specific color pattern
Originated in Limousin and Marche regions of France
Golden to a red in color
Well known for being the "dachshund" of the cattle world, meaning extremely long bodies with relatively short legs.
Dairy Cattle Breeds
Black and white color patterns
A single cow can produce around 10 gallons of wilk per day.
Originated of coast of England
Milk high in butterfat
More pounds of milk per pound of body weight than any other breed.
cream to light fawn color with black "points"
Originated in Switzerland
2nd largest quantity of milk per cow behind Holstein
have long gestation periods
often grey or a dark fawn color
Large frame with fuzzy ears.
Originated on The Isle of Guernsey, an island in the English Channel off the coast of France
high-butterfat, high-protein milk with a high concentration of betacarotene (makes it golden in color)
often Fawn with white "points"
good grazing breed
Medium sized breed
Red and white color patterns
Originated in Scotland
medium sized with expected weight around 1200 pounds
Ayrshire calves are strong and easy to raise, they are "vigorous"
Cuts of Beef
1. High Value- loin, rib, round, rump.
2. Low Value- chuck, brisket, flank, plate or navel, shank.
1. High Value
a. Ribeye from rib.
b. Tenderloin from loin.
c. Sirloin from loin.
d. Rump from rump.
e. T-bone from loin.
2. Low Value- stew beef, ground beef, cubed steak, brisket
A. Beef animals are classified according to their purpose.
B. Animals are grouped by age and sex.
i. Calves- less than one year of age.
ii. Cattle- one year or older.
iii. Veal calves- less than 3 months old.
iv. Slaughter calves- 3 months to one year old.
v. Feeder calves- 6 months to one year old.
i. Steer- male castrated before reaching sexual maturity.
ii. Heifer- female that has not had a calf or matured as a cow.
iii. Cow- female that has had one or more calves or is mature.
iv. Bull- uncastrated male.
v. Stag- male castrated after reaching sexual maturity.
C. Feeder Cattle (6 months and older)- graded based on visual appraisal. The frame size, muscle thickness and thriftiness of the animal are scored and animals are grouped according to a USDA scale.
1. USDA Feeder Steer & Heifer Grades
i. USDA No. 1.
ii. USDA No. 2.
iii. USDA No. 3.
iv. Each USDA grade also has a large, medium and small frame category.
Slaughter Cattle- also evaluated visually, but they are also graded according to USDA standards. All animals are assigned quality and yield grades when they are slaughtered.
1. Quality Grades
2. Yield Grades
i. Yield Grade 1.
ii. Yield Grade 2.
iii. Yield Grade 3.
iv. Yield Grade 4.
v. Yield Grade 5.
Quality Features of Beef
A. Feeder Steer & Heifer Grades
1. Animals are divided into three groups- calves, yearlings and older feeders based on their age and weight.
2. Feeder animals weigh between 350 to 1,000lbs.
3. Feeder cattle grades are the basis for reporting market prices for cattle.
4. Three factors are used to determine the grade of feeder cattle:
i. Thriftiness- the apparent health of the animal and its potential to fatten and grow normally.
ii. Frame Size- the size of the animal’s skeleton (height & body length).
1. Large- tall and long bodied for their age.
2. Medium- slightly large in size for their age.
3. Small- shorter bodied and not as tall as medium frame cattle.
iii. Thickness- development of muscle in relation the size of the skeleton.
1. US No. 1- slightly thick throughout, moderate width between legs.
2. US No. 2- narrow throughout, legs set close together, back and loin have sunken appearance.
3. US No. 3- less thickness and width between legs than No. 2.
5. USDA Feeder Cattle Grades- uses the three factors discussed above to assign a “grade” to the animal.
i. Large Frame No. 1- animal that is taller in size compared to others and displays thick muscling throughout body.
ii. Large Frame No. 2- same frame size as No. 1, but has slightly less muscling. Back and loin have a sunken appearance.
iii. Large Frame No. 3- same frame size as No. 2, but has less thickness and width than No. 2.
iv. Medium Frame No.1- animal with a moderate or average frame size and thick muscling throughout.
v. Medium Frame No. 2- same frame size as No. 2, but less muscling as compared to No. 1. Loin and back have a sunken appearance.
vi. Medium Frame No. 3- same frame size as No. 2, but less thickness and width than No.2.
vii. Small Frame No. 1- the size of the animal is smaller than other grades, but animal displays thick muscling throughout.
viii. Small Frame No. 2- same frame size as No. 1, but less muscled. Back and loin appear sunken in.
ix. Small Frame No. 3- same frame size as No. 2, but less thickness and width than No. 2.
x. Inferior- feeder cattle that are unthrifty and not expected to grow or fatten normally. Usually indicative of disease, parasites, etc.
Slaughter Steer & Heifers Quality Grades
1. Quality grade is determined by:
i. Age or maturity of animal.
ii. Muscling or firmness of meat tissue.
iii. Amount of marbling or fat distribution in the lean meat.
2. Marbling is the dispersal or intermingling of fat among the muscle fiber in the ribeye between the twelfth and thirteenth ribs.
3. Cutability is the yield of closely trimmed, boneless retail cuts that come from the major wholesale cuts of carcass.
4. Maximum age of Standard, Select, Choice or Prime grades is 42 months.
5. Commercial grade is over 42 months.
6. Utility, Cutter or Canner grades have no age limit.
7. There is no Prime grade for slaughter cows.
8. Adequate marbling must be present for tenderness in the higher quality grades.
9. Prime grades have maximum marbling.
10. Low choice or higher grades are the most desirable.
11. About 80% of grain fed grade beef is graded as choice.
1. Yield grade is determined by the percentage of the carcass that is boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin rib, and chuck
2. Yield grades are affected by muscling and amount of fat.
3. Yield 1- best muscling with least fat waste. Highest percentage of retail cuts.
4. Yield 2, 3, 4- grades that are in between the highest percentage of yield versus the lowest grade.
5. Yield 5- worst grade, less muscle and more fat waste.
C. Slaughter Steer & Heifers Yield Grades
Quality Standard for Beef
A. The United States Department of Agriculture sets forth quality features for beef, pork and poultry.
B. The quality features are classified into grades as determined by the USDA.
C. Grades indicate quality NOT sanitation.
The Animal Agriculture Process
A. The process for producing and caring for animals varies greatly depending on the type of animals, location, facilities and overall producer goals.
B. There has been an increase in consumer demand for locally grown and organically raised products.
1. Consumers have increased their awareness of how agriculture products are raised and manufactured.
2. The majority of livestock and poultry products are still produced and sold to commercial corporations who re-distribute them through various outlets such as grocery stores.
C. In general, producers must decide:
1. Goal of production and purpose of animals.
2. The type of breeding system to use based on how they elect to produce the animals.
3. How to market the animals.
Beef Cattle Production
Types of Beef Cattle Operations
Beef cattle producers may specialize in one type of cattle operation or combine various types.
1. Cow-Calf Producers- a herd of cows are bred each year to produce calves. These calves are often sold sometime after weaning (6 months to 1 year old animals).
2. Seedstock- also known as purebred breeders. Keeps herds of purebred breeding animals and provide replacement bulls for cow-calf operations. These operations focus more specifically on genetic improvements within a given breed.
3. Cattle Feeders
i. Stocker Operations- purchase calves from a cow-calf producer and care for them for approximately 5 months (12 months to 17 months of age).
ii. Feedlot- raises large numbers of animals in a more confined area.
a. Animals are fed to a “finished” market weight and then sent to be processed between 18-22 months of age.
b. Feedlot animals are purchased from stockers or cow-calf producers through one of the various types of livestock markets.
Processing Beef Products
1. Feedlots sell animals to packing plants (slaughter houses).
2. Most packing facilities process animals into primal cuts and subprimal cuts. These products are sold to retailers and foodservice companies.
3. Some packing facilities sell subprimals to meat processors who create value added products such as pre-cooked items, sandwich meat, etc.
The amount of time involved in producing beef cattle is significantly longer compared to swine and poultry.
Most beef cattle are grown independently, not on contracts.
Dairy Cattle Production
A. Dairy cattle production in the United States continues to shift towards larger herds that allow producers to maximize production and profits.
B. Types of Dairy Cattle Operations
1. Intensive Dairy Production- animals are raised in a more confined setting such as an open lot or tie stall barn.
2. Pasture Dairy Production- cattle are turned out on pasture continuously or for portions of the day.
3. Some producers us a combination of both types.
Production Cycle of Dairy Cattle
1. Mature cows are milked 2-3 times a day after they give birth and their lactation cycle begins.
i. Calves are removed from the cow 1-2 days after being born.
a. Male calves are typically used for veal or are raised as slaughter steers.
b. Heifers are either kept to become replacements or are used for meat.
c. Replacement heifers are typically raised in feedlot or pasture settings until they are ready to be moved in with the dairy herd.
ii. Replacement heifers are bred around 15 months of age and begin producing milk 9 months later (2 years of age).
2. During the lactation cycle, cows are re-bred.
3. Approximately 60 days before they give birth again, they are “dried off” (quit producing milk) in preparation for their next calf to be born.
4. The average production cycle of dairy cattle is 5-7 years. Animals are then processed for their meat.
1. Milk is collected into large tanks at the farm and then transported to processing facilities.
Processing Dairy Products
2. The fluid milk (cream and skim) is separated and then re-blended to make skim, 2%, whole milk, etc.
i. Fluid milk is pasteurized and homogenized.
a. Pasteurization- rapid heating and cooling of milk to remove harmful bacteria.
b. Homogenization- dispersing fat droplets so the milk stays uniformly mixed.
ii. The excess fat removed from the fluid milk to make low fat milk such as skim and 2% is used to make products such as eggnog, butter, whipping cream, etc.
3. Other dairy products made from fat and butterfat at value added facilities include ice cream, yogurt and cheese.
Breeding Livestock Animals
A. Various breeding systems exist due to the various types of livestock operations.
B. The size of the herd, amount of money available and goals of the producer are all factors that determine the type of system used.
C. Some farms use more than one type of mating system.
D. In general, cattle use all types of breeding systems while swine and poultry tend to utilize crossbreeding to develop industry owned hybrids.
Types of Breeding Systems
A. Straightbreeding- mating animals of the same breed. Types of straightbreeding systems:
1. Purebred Breeding- mating registered purebred male and female of the same breed.
i. Animals are eligible for registry with a purebred association.
ii. Example: Angus x Angus
2. Inbreeding- mating closely related animals. Increased the genetic purity of the stock produced, but is not used as often by the typical producer. Two types of inbreeding:
i. Closebreeding- mating animals that are very closely related. Example: son X mother
ii. Linebreeding- mating animals more distantly related than closebreeding. Example: cousin to cousin
3. Grading Up- mating purebred males (sires) to grade or unregistered or crossbred females (dams) to improve the herd.
B. Crossbreeding- mating a male and female of different breeds. Usually results in improved traits of the offspring which is referred to as hybrid vigor. Example: Yorkshire boar x Yorkshire – Hampshire sow
1. Crossbreeding Systems Include
i. Terminal sire- replacement females are bred to a sire and all offspring are sold.
ii. Rotational- uses a two, three or four breeds to rotate between sires and females. This system requires more intensive management.
Methods of Marketing Systems
A. Terminal Markets- central markets on public stockyards where livestock are consigned to a commission firm to bargain with purchasers or buyers for a certain fee.
B. Auction Markets- public bidding with the animals selling to the buyer who bids the highest.
C. Direct Selling- farmer sells straight to buyer with no middle person or firm receiving commissions or fees.
D. Electronic Marketing- auctioning online using computers.
E. Futures Market and Hedging- legal document calling for delivery in the future, locking in a future delivery price.
F. Vertical Integration Contracts- animals are produced as well as marketed as a part of the vertical integration enterprise.