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History Of The Cell

By: Samantha E. Cervantes
by

Samantha Cervantes

on 14 September 2012

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Transcript of History Of The Cell

By: Samantha E. Cervantes The History Of The Cell The cell is the basic unit of structures and organization in organisms. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. All cells come from preexisting cells. In the 1600s, Zacharias Jansen came up with the first compound microscope and telescope. This resulted in many scientists going out and getting one, so they could learn more. Rules of the Cell Theory While everyone was out getting the microscope, Anton van Leeuwenhoeke invented his own microscope. Using that he discovered bacteria on his teeth, which he called animalcules. Cytology, the study of cells, began in 1665 with Robert Hooke who was the first person to call a cell by its name. He had published his microscopic findings in a magazine where he first used the word cell to describe what he saw under the lens. In 1832, Bartheremy Dumortier described cell division in plants. Looking at a line separating the old cell from the new cell he said 'seems to us to provide a perfectly clear explanation of the origin and development of cells, which has hitherto remained unexplained.' On the other side of Germany in 1839, a scientist named Theodor Schwann studied animal cells, and soon discovered that all animals have cells. Shortly after finding out that all animals have cells, Schwann contacted many scientists to tell them of his discovery. Schleiden contacted him telling him of his discoveries, so they ended up working together to come up with the cell theory. While coming up with the last rule they got into and argument on whether or not cells came from previous cells. In 1838, German scientist Matthias Scleiden discovered, after many years of studying different types of plants, that all plants are made up of cells. The first description of the cell nucleus was by Franz Bauer in 1802. It was named in 1831 by Robert Brown. The first accurate description of the nucleolus was in 1835, by Rudolph Wagner In 1879, Walther Flemming said that cells split lengthwise during mitosis (a term he came up with.) Wilhelm Roux suggested that each chromosome carried a different set of hereditary elements and said that the lengthwise splitting assured that there would be equal splitting of these elements. This was confirmed in 1902 by Theodor Boveri. All known living things are made up of cells. The Modern Cell Theory The cell is structural & functional unit of all living things. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division. (Spontaneous Generation does not occur). Cells contains hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition. All energy flow (metabolism & biochemistry) of life occurs within cells. The first continuous timeline of a cell was in 1951 by George Otto Gey and his associates. The cells that were studied were cervical cancer cells taken from Henrietta Lacks, who died from cancer in 1951. The cells are otherwise known as HeLa cells. They have been the leading component in studying cell biology, so that the structure of DNA was the huge breakthrough in molecular biology of that time. In 1839, Hugo von Mohl described mitosis in plants. In 1840, Albrecht von Roelliker found out that sperm cells and egg cells were, in fact, cells. In 1857, Kolliker described mitochondria. In 1898, Camillo Golgi described the golgi apparatus, which was then named after him. In 1901, Walter Stanborough Sutton, an American biologist, shows that chromosomes exist in anatomically similar pairs. In 1903, Sutton shows that egg and sperm cells only have one out of each set of chromosomes. In 1998, mice were cloned from somatic cells. The University of Hawaii came up with the technique used to clone the mice. A few different animals have been cloned since then, like sheep, monkeys, and cows. It has also been proven that you can make clones of clones, which some may say is very unethical. Gregor Mahann Mendel, who was a monk in Austria, is known as the father of genetics. He is known as that because he tracked genetic changes in some pea plants that he was studying. In 1869, Sir Francis Galton of Great Britian published 'Hereditary Genius' saying that hereditary is the main reason for a person's character. In 1882, Walther Fleming, a biologist from Germany, used dye to stain the cells he was studying. While doing that he noticed little rods which he called chromosomes. In 1887, Edouard van Beneden, a biologist from Belgium, discovered that all members of the same species have the same amount of chromosomes. In 1909, Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen from Denmark, said that each section of a chromosome that is in control of a phenotype should be called a gene. In Greek, gene means to give birth to. In 1938, Behrens used centrifugation to spot the differences between nuclei and cytoplasm. In 1939, Siemens made the first commercial transmission electron microscope. In 1952 Francis Crick,from Britain, and James Watson, from the U.S., make a model of the DNA molecule. Together they provide evidence that what Avery said was true, and that genes are responsible for heredity. Crick and Watson, along with colleagues Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin start the scientific branch known as molecular biology. Another scientist named Rudolf Virchow showed Schleiden evidence that what he believed, that cells just appeared, was wrong without mentioning that he 'borrowed' it from another scientist names Robert Remak. In 1941, George W. Beadle and Edward L. Tatum, both from the U.S., proved that genes control things like the production of enzymes. In 1944 Oswald Avery, from the U.S., proved that DNA is the only substance responsible for heredity.
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