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Cell Project

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by

Lizzie Soufleris

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of Cell Project

Cell Project
By Lizzie Soufleris and Grace D'Agostino

1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, and organization in all organisms.
3. All cells come from pre-existing, living cells.

Prokaryotic Cells:

­ Plasma Membrane- separates interior and exterior and regulates traffic
­ Nucleoid- region of DNA
­ Cytoplasm
- Cytosol- mostly water
- Ribosomes-contains ions, small molecules, soluble macromolecules and makes proteins
­ Specialized Features of Some
- Flagella- acts like propeller
- Cell Wall- contains polypeptidoglycan
- Internal Membrane- i.e. cynobacteria (for photosynthesis)
- Cytoskeleton- helps maintain shape; located right inside cell membrane

Eukaryotic Cells
-Membrane-bound organelles to provide local environments for specific metabolic functions
-organelles act as factories, producing necessary materials for the cell
-contains a cytoskeleton and an extracellular matrix
Endosymbiont Theory
This theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once primitive, free-living prokaryotes that entered eukaryotic cells. Eventually, they evolved into permanent fixtures within then cells, becoming organelles.
Organelles
organized or specialized structures within a living cell
CELLS
Lysosomes
An organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrans.

Structure: membranous sac with hydrolytic enzymes, needs acidic environment
Function: break down nutrients to release cytosol, recycle cells own organic matter

Vesicles
In transit from one part of the cell to the other
Help in transport, modifies, stores and manufactures
Cell Membrane
The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell
Selectively permeable: allows some substances to cross more easily than others
Made of phospholipids, proteins and other macromolecules
Ribosomes
Organelles that carry out protein synthesis (RNA and protein)
Structure: 2 subunits, some free in cytoplasm, some attached to ER
Mitochondria
Sites of cellular respiration and the metabolic process that makes ATP
Vacuoles
Space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically contains fluid
A. Food vacuoles: formed by photosynthesis
B. Contractile vacuoles: pump excess H2O out of a cell and maintaining appropriate concentration of salts
C. Central vacuole: contained by mature plant cells
Centrioles
Each composed of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring
Cytoskeleton
Help maintain shape, located inside cell membrane
Contain three fibers: actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Accounts for more than half of the total membrane in eukaryotic cells
A. Smooth: Synthesize oils, phospholipids, sterioids--> sex hormones,detoxification of drugs and poisons, metabolizes carbs
B. Rough: Secrete proteins via transport vesicles, membrane factory
Chloroplasts

Sites of photosynthesis only in plant cells
Cytoplasm

Material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus
Region between nucleus and plasma membrane
Cell Theory
Cell Wall
-a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells
-used in plant cells to reinforce structure and add protection
Nucleolus
-small, dense structure within the nucleus
-contains chromosomes/genetic information
Golgi Complex
where products of the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and stored, then sent elsewhere
Nucleus
where genes are contained in a eukaryotic cell
Nuclear Envelope
The lipid bilayer that surrounds the nucleus and nucleolus, separating them from the cytoplasm.
Chromosomes
structure made of chromatin that carries DNA
Ribosomes
Full transcript