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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Alberto Criado López; Fernando Castaño Hernández; Elena Montes Martín
by

Carmen Leguizamon

on 14 June 2016

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Transcript of CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Conditional Sentences
The first conditional is a structure used to talk about possibilities in the present or in the future.
The "Zero" Conditional
Usage
Example
Conditional 0
If I am late, my father takes me to school.
Often called the "real" conditional because it is used for real or possible situations.
If it rains, we will stay at home.
If he studied more, he would pass the exam.
Often referred to as the "past" conditional because it concerns only past situations with hypothetical results.
If he had known that, he would have decided differently.
Often called the "unreal" conditional because it is used for unreal, impossible or improbable situations.
Conditional 3
Conditional 2
Conditional 1
Situations that are always
true if something happens.
Type 1 Conditional
Type 2 Conditional
Type 3 Conditional
Castaño, F. ; Criado, A. ; Montes, E.
The zero conditional is a structure used to talk about general truths; things which always happen under certain conditions.
The structure of a "zero" conditional sentence
A zero conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if" clause and a main clause (note that most zero conditional sentences will mean the same thing if "when" is used instead of "if"):
If clause
(present simple)
+ main clause
(present simple)

If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils.
The structure of a first conditional sentence
A first conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if" clause and a main clause:
If clause
(present simple)
+ main clause

(simple future)

If you study hard, you will pass the test.
The second conditional is a structure used to talk about unreal situations in the present or in the future. It's also used to make a statement about:
Something that is not real at present but is possible.
Something that is not real now and never could be real.
The structure of a second conditional sentence
Like a first conditional, a second conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if" clause and a main clause:
If clause

(past simple)
+
main clause

(simple conditional)

If I had a million dollars, I would buy a big house.
If I were you, I'd give up smoking.
The third conditional is a structure used to talk about unreal situations in the past.
The structure of a third conditional sentence
Like the other conditionals, a third conditional sentence consists of two clauses, an "if" clause and a main clause:
If clause
(past perfect)
+ main clause

(perfect conditional)

If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam.
Variations
1. We can use the modal verbs to express the degree of certainty of the result:
If clause

(present simple)
+
main clause

(modal verb)
If you drop the glass, it might break.

2. Can also be used:
If clause

(present continuous)
+
main clause

(simple future)
If you are looking for Peter you'll find him upstairs.

If clause

(present perfect)
+
main clause

(simple future)
If you have finished dinner I'll ask the waiter for the bill.

If clause

(present simple)
+
main clause

(imperative)
If there is a problem, call me.
Variations
1. We can use the modal verbs
might
or
could
instead of would:
If clause

(past simple)
+
main clause

(might or could)
If I knew her number I could ring her up.

2. Can also be used:
If clause

(past continuous)
+
main clause

(simple conditional)
If my car was working I would drive you to the station.
Variations
1. We can use the modal verbs
might
or
could
instead of would:
If clause

(past perfect)
+
main clause

(might or could)
If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life.

2. A combination of types 2 and 3 is possible:
If clause

(past perfect)
+
main clause

(simple conditional)
If I had worked harder at school I would be sitting in a comfortable office now.
UNREAL PAST
The past tense is sometimes used in English to refer to an "unreal" situation. So, although the tense is the past, we are usually talking about the present, e.g. in a Type 2 conditional sentence.

If an elephant and mouse fell in love, they would have many problems.
1. Expressions like "if"
If clause
(supposing, if only, what if)
+
main clause
(past tense or past perfect)
What if we painted the room purple?
Supposing I had given that man my money!

Unless clause

(unless)

+

main clause

(affirmative verb)

=
If clause

(if)
+
main clause

(negative verb)
Unless you start at once you'll be late = If you don't start at once you'll be late

2. The verb to wish. We use wish to say that we regret or complain something, that something is not as we would like it to be:
Wish clause

(wish)
+
main clause

(past tense)
I wish I had more money.

Wish clause

(wish)
+
main clause

(past perfect)
I wish I hadn't said that.

Wish clause

(wish)
+
main clause

(would + infinitive)
I wish he would stop smoking.

3. I'd rather and it's time...
I'd rather clause
(I'd rather)
+
main clause

(past tense)
I'd rather you went.

It's time clause
(It's time)
+
main clause

(past tense)
It's time you paid that bill.
Exercises
Exercises
Exercises
Exercises
Final Exercises 1
Final Exercises 2
Final Exercises 3
Final Exercises 4
1- If he comes…
a) We will go to lunch.
b) We would go to lunch.
c) We go to lunch.
d) We went to lunch.

2- I would buy a new house…
a) If I have a lot of money.
b) If I win the lottery.
c) If I inherited a million dollars.
d) If I will win the lottery.

3- If she misses the bus, …
a) I’d take her to school by car.
b) I take her to school by car.
c) She have to walk.
d) I’d taken to school by car.

4- If I had known you were in town,…
a) I would buy you some flowers.
b) I would had bought you some flowers.
c) I will buy you some flowers.
d) I would have bought you some flowers
.
5- If he studies a lot,…
a) He might pass the exam.
b) He would pass the exam.
c) He is going to pass the exam.
d) He passed the exam.

6- I would get a new job,…
a) If I was you.
b) If I am you.
c) If I were you.
d) If I had been you.

7- He will surely fail his exams,…
a) If he not work harder.
b) Unless he begins to study.
c) If he weren’t serious.
d) Unless he weren’t serious.

8- I wish this computer...
a) had stop crashing.
b) stop crashing.
c) would stop crashing.
d) wouln't stop crashing.
9- They would have bought that new car,…
a) If they had the money.
b) If they were having the money.
c) If they had had the money.
d) If they might have the money.

10- I leave on Saturdays,…
a) If she comes to visit.
b) If she won’t come to visit.
c) If she will come to visit.
d) Unless she will visit.

11- If he were president,…
a) He would help the poor more.
b) He would have helped the poor more.
c) He will help the poor more.
d) He helps the poor more.

12- I'd rather you...
a) stayed home.
b) will stay home.
c) haven't gone to the party.
13- If they had had good sense,…
a) They would had moved to Madrid.
b) They would have moved to Madrid.
c) They will move to Madrid.
d) They had moved to Madrid.

14- Watch out! If you touch that cable,…
a) you had a shock.
b) you shocked.
c) you will get a shock.
d) you would get a shock.

15- ... , I usually go to the cinema.
a) If I would have time
b) If I had time
c) If I wasn't ill
d) If I have time

16- If he is cooking sweets...
a) He needs a lot of sugar.
b) He will need a lot of sugar.
c) He would needs a lot of sugar.
d) He needed a lot of sugar.
Good job!

THE END
a) You (save) ............... some money, if you (go) ............... to work by bike.

b) The boy (fall) ............... down, if he (climb) ............... the tree.

c) If Michael (speak) ................ several languages, he (find) ................ a good job.

d) If Mark and Brian (steal) ................ the bank, they (run) ................ away.

e) You (not travel) ............... to USA, if you (not have) ............... your passport.

f) If I (find) ............... your keys, I (call) ............... you.

g) If you (miss) ............... the train, you (not arrive) ............... on time.

h) We (enjoy) ............... our holidays, if we (leave) ............... our kids at home.

i) They (visit) ............... Canada in winter, if they (like) ............... snow.

j) You (see) ............... a great landscape, if you (climb) ............... the mountain.

k) If he (listen) ............... to the teacher, he (understand) ............... the lesson.

l) If they (go) ............... to the cinema, they (enjoy) ............... the movie.

m) If he (be) ............... intelligent, he (solve) ............... the problem.

n) If your car (be) ............... broken, the mechanic (repair) ............... it.
a) If she (play) ............... the piano well, people (listen) ................ the concert.

b) If he (lend) ............... me the money, I (give) ............... it back.

c) If my sister (feel) ............... very ill, my mother (take) ............... her to the hospital.

d) The policeman (not stop) ............... you, if you (not drive) ............... so fast.

e) My father (repair) ............... the roof, if my uncle (lend) ............... him the ladder.

f) Michael (call) ............... me, if he (have) ............... my telephone number.

g) John (learn) ............... the lesson, if he (read) ............... the book.

h) If it (start) ............... to rain, we (not go) ............... to the stadium.

i) If they (use) ............... public transportation, they (save) ............... a lot of money.

j) If you (have) ............... time in the evenings, you (go) ............... to the cinema.

k) If I (be) ............... you, I (not spend) ............... all the money.

l) If you (tell) ............... me the truth, you (not have) ............... problems.

m) If he (run) ............... fast, he (win) ............... the race.

n) If he (send) ............... me an e-mail, I (answer) ............... it.
a) If my father (buy) …………… fast food, I (have) …………… dinner outside.

b) If the police (arrive) …………… earlier, they (catch) …………… the thieves.

c) If Susan (not work) …………… on Saturday, she (come) …………… to the cinema with us.

d) If Peter (break) …………… the glass, he (fix) …………… it.

f) If Michael (know) …………… the secret, he (tell) …………… you.

g) If Jane (not run) …………… inside the house, she (not break) …………… the lamp.

h) If I (answer) …………… all the questions, I (pass) …………… the test.

i) If the problems (be) …………… easier, I (solve) …………… them.

j) If you (bring) …………… a present, my sister (be) …………… very happy.

k) If my brother (clean) …………… his bedroom, he (not be) …………… punished.

l) If you (stay) …………… at home, your friends (visit) …………… you.

m) If I (receive) …………… the letter, I (not travel) …………… to Spain.

n) If Sally (not spend) …………… all the money, she (buy) …………… a new car.
have rent work eats know freeze helps come


a) If you………… water, it turns into ice.

b) If I ………… too much, I get tired.

c) If I ………. time, I usually go to the movies.

d) If she ……… hamburgers, she gets an allergy.

e) If they …………. here, they always bring a present.

f) If she doesn't ……….. the answer, she keeps silent.

g) If we don't go out on Saturdays, we ……… a video and stay home.

h) Jerry ………… me with my homework when he has time.
Exercises
a) It was a stupid thing to say. I .................... it. (I / not / say)

b) I'm fed up with this rain. I wish .................... . (it / stop)

c) It's difficult question. I wish .................... the answer. (I / know)

d) I should have listened to you. I wish .................... your advice. (I / take)

e) You're lucky to be going away. I wish .................... with you. (I / can / come)

f) I have no energy at the moment. I wish .................... so tired. (I / not / be)

g) Aren't they ready yet? I wish .................... up. (they / hurry)

h) It would be nice to stay here longer. I wish .................... to leave now. (we / not / have)

i) When we were in London last year, we didn't have time to see all the things we wanted to see. I wish .................... longer. (we / can / stay)

j) It's freezing today. I wish .................... so cold. I hate cold weather. (it / not /be)

k) Joe still doesn't know what he wants to do. I wish .................... . (he / decide)

l) I really didn't enjoy the party. I wish .................... . (we / not / go)
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