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Special Education

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on 15 July 2014

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Transcript of Special Education

Full-time placement in a general education classroom did not produce a superior academic outcome for all students with special educational needs (Chesley & Calaluce, 2002) (Hallahan, 2002).

Unlike teachers, special educators are trained to facilitate learning for students with special needs (Hallahan, 2002).

Needs of the students may not be met in the general classroom.

Simpson (cited in Wood, 1998) states ‘Students with disabilities traditionally have lower positions of status than their nondisabled peers, and this pattern of rejection holds both in general or special classes…. What does this mean?

Higher levels of teasing/bullying than experienced by other children and fewer friends for students with mild learning difficulties in regular classes.

Peers with disabilities could not keep up in a regular class, that they needed a special setting and that special education settings were effective in answering their educational needs or some were integrated in some aspect of a class but this was determined separated students on the basis of achievement.

James Kauffman “inclusion is unrealistic just implemented to save money”inclusion
Forcing can be itself discriminatory

It is important that students are in an environment they can succeed in not just forced into a classroom that will not necessarily benefit them

Special Education
Video Clip
Inclusive vs. Exclusive Education
Students are able to transition into adulthood with more ease when they have more positive and successful experiences in school, as well as more interactions with nondisabled peers. (Falvey, Rosenberg, Monson, and Eschilian, 2006). The mean academic performance of the integrated group was in the 80th percentile, while the segregated students score was in the 50th percentile (Weiner R., 1985)

As of 1999, students with disabilities remained to be twice as likely to drop out of school indicating that exclusive and partial inclusive classrooms popular at the time are failing (Kortering & Braziel).

Students in partial inclusion classrooms are more likely to be stigmatized because students notice when they are being “pulled out” of the classroom for individual instruction.

Advocates: RIGHTS of all students is to be educated in the company of typical peers, and believe that inclusion will result in stronger social and academic achievement, advance citizenship and the development of a stronger community.. isn't this what we want for our students
If you treat or respond to a student with a disability in a manner marking that student as different from typical students, typical students also would see the student as different and how would they feel

All students would come to know and value each other, and make friends.
Accepted that they had some responsibility for supporting their peers with disabilities to do well socially and academically (how does this make students feel)

It is argued that segregated programs are detrimental to students and do not meet the original goals for special education

Segregated programs are double the price
Student develops better social skills and has a better chance of becoming employed in the future if they were taught in an integrated classroom

Special needs who had been in segregated programs was 53% but for special needs graduates from integrated programs the employment rate was 73%

Students' Responses
Owen, 13 thinks they should almost go to both [regular and special education settings]. ’Cause I don’t know what they’re learning. But they can’t be learning much

Karl, grade 11 Q: [Do] some think Ralph should be in a segregated school for the blind?
A: Other kids don’t know enough about him ... If they got to know him, they might change their views. I believe he should be here.
Inclusive Education vs. Exclusive Education
The challenge is to create a safe environment conducive to academic achievement and social-emotional well being for all students.

There is no right or wrong answer. Each child's special education needs should be handled on a case by case basis.

It is essential to get everyone involved in order to make a positive change on the child's academic journey.

When including children within the classroom, the teacher must create a positive and safe learning environment. (Helping students to understand the needs of others within the classroom).

We are all connected around the world. We all live together. We all deserve equal treatment and fair opportunities. Most of all we all deserve respect!
Types of Classrooms
Share Your Experiences!
“One in five children and youth experience some kind of issue (including: anxiety, stress, A.D.H.D, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and suicide) and not all receive treatment”.

Intellectual Disability: 1-3% of general population
Learning Disabilities:
Reading (Dyslexia): 5-17% of children
Writing (Dysgraphia): 10% of children
Math (Dyscalculia): 1% of children
3-15% of the school population
Autism Spectrum Disorders :
1% of general population (3-4% for males)
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder:
6-7% of children and adolescents
Anxiety Disorder:
1 in 10 children
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: 1-3% of children
Social Anxiety: 6-12% of children
2-8% of children
Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia:
1 in 10,000 children
Oppositional Defiant Disorder:
12% of children
Today, approximately 79% of elementary school children with special education needs are placed within the regular classroom for more than 50% of the day. Many of the programs or services that they receive occur within this setting. Thus, Ontario's classrooms include students with many different learning styles and educational needs.

Students are typically required to be labeled in order to receive these in-class supports, or to be placed within a special education class with lower student to teacher ratios. If students have not been labeled, they will not receive access to these services.
Class Sizes
According to the Ontario Education Act, class size in special education is dependent upon the needs of the children in the class as well as the special education services made available to the teacher.

The following is a breakdown of class size in a variety of special education class settings in Ontario:
6 students - A class with students with autism, or with multiple handicaps
8 students - A class whose students are emotional disturbed, or have severe learning disabilities
10 students - A class for students who are blind, deaf, or have developmental disabilities
12 students - A class for students are hard of hearing, have limited hearing, or other physical handicaps
12 students - A class for students who have mild intellectual disabilities
20 students - A class with gifted students

Commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend.
Involves bringing the support services to the child (rather than moving the child to the services)
Requires only that the child will benefit from being in the class (rather than having to keep up with the other students).

Full Inclusion
All students, regardless of handicapping condition or severity, will be in a regular classroom/program full time
All services must be taken to the child in that setting

1980s - Canadian teachers associations - Reform movement that called for the inclusion of students with special needs within the regular classroom
Legislation and policies diminished the line between general and special ed and broadened the responsibilities of classroom teachers
The Elementary Teachers‘ Association of Ontario (ETFO) reported integration as a significant issue for teachers
Concerns about impact for typically developing students
Teachers felt work is jeopardized by a lack of professional development realistically geared toward supporting inclusive schooling
When the inclusive status was accepted as reality, previously unconvinced teachers assumed more favourable stances
Canadian teachers' associations appreciate that diversity, equality, and inclusion are critical principles in Canadian legislation and society
The practice of teaching is based on research; whenever a change is made in education there is research done to monitor its implications, and determine if it should be continued in practice. The goal is to find a method of instruction which has the greatest outcome for students, not only academically but also socially, and psychologically.

Inclusive pedagogy is the theory and practice of teaching diverse groups. It encompasses the idea of creating a safe, open environment for all students, and is concerned with the learning experiences of all learners.

Special education is not exempt from this. Changes both towards and away from inclusion have been occurring over the years and extensive research is attempting to determine which classroom setting is best for students with special needs.
Recommendations for
Inclusion to be Successful
The entire school community must be involved in a carefully researched transition supports and services should be made available for all students, but always assume that every student's first placement is in regular education.
All placement decisions should be based on a well-developed IEP with an emphasis on the needs of the child, her/his peers and the reasonable provision of services staff must agree on a clearly articulated philosophy of education
Extensive staff development must be made available as a part of every teacher's and paraprofessional's workday.
Work toward unifying the special education and regular education systems
Involve parents and students as partners in the decision-making process.
When developing programs, consider multiple teaching/learning approaches like team teaching, co-teaching, peer partners, cooperative learning, heterogeneous grouping, study team planning, parallel teaching, station teaching, etc.
Special education has, for many years, been stigmatized by society. Some parents continue to refuse the testing of their children for learning disabilities. And still, some parents refuse an IEP for their child because of perceived social implications, despite knowing their child would benefit from the services.

As teachers we can break the cycle, by explaining to our students that everyone has different ways of learning and different needs. Teachers should discuss with students how to support students with special needs in the classroom so they can understand their classmates and realize they aren’t really as different as they may have thought. To end the stigma, we need the help and support of parents, teachers, administrators and students.
The following is a list of the types of support children requiring special education may receive within Ontario elementary schools:

A regular class with indirect support:
Student is placed in a regular class throughout the entire day
Teacher receives specialized consultative services to help meet the student's needs
A regular class with resource assistance:
Student is placed in regular class for most/all of the day
Student receives specialized instruction (individual or group) from a qualified special education teacher
A regular class with withdrawal assistance:
Student receives instruction outside of the classroom for less than 50% of the day from a qualified special education teacher
A special education class with partial integration:
Student is placed in a special education class with a regulated student-teacher ratio for at least 50% of the day
Student is integrated with a regular class for at least one instructional period a day
A special education class full-time:
Student is placed in a special education class with a regulated student-teacher ratio for the entire school day

Types of Classrooms Continued
think pair share
inclusive vs exclusive education
The "Big" Ideas...
Thank You!
(Winzer & Mazurek, 2011)
Full transcript