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Self Rule for Canada, Australia, & New Zealand
Transcript of Self Rule for Canada, Australia, & New Zealand
After the American Revolution, 30,000 or more colonists fled to Canada.
Newcomers were English-speaking & Protestant.
Native Americans formed another strand of the Canadian heritage.
American people lived in eastern Canada, whites settled in the west & north. The Two Canadas. The Durham Report. In 1839, the Durham report called for the two Canadas to be reunited & given control over their own affairs.
In 1840, Parliament passed the Act of Union, it gave Canada an elected legislature.
Britain kept control of foreign policy & trade. Dominion of Canada. In the 1800's Canada expanded westward.
John Macdonald & George Etienne Cartier urged confederation, or unification, of all Canada's provinces.
They feared that the U.S. would try to dominate Canada.
In 1867, the British North American Act was passed.
Canada had its own parliament. Canada, Australia, & New Zeland won independence. Self-Rule for Canada, Australia, & New Zeland 1791, Britain passed the Canada Act.
- English-speaking Upper Canada.
- French-speaking Lower Canada.
Had its own laws, lwgislature, & royal governor.
In 1837, a rebellion broke out between Upper and Lower Canada.
Expansion. John Macdonald - Canada's first prime minister encouraged expansion.
He called for a transcontinental railroad.
In 1885, the Canadian Pacific Railway opened, linking eastern & western Canada.
Westward expansion destroyed the way of life of Native Americans in Canada.
Louis Reil led a revolt of the Metis. (people of mixed Native American & European descent)
Government troops put down the uprising & excuted Riel. Immigration. Immigrants came to Canada from Europe & Asia.
People also came from Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, China, & Japan.
- French-speaking Canadians tried to preserve their heritage, making
it hard for Canadians to create a single identity.
- The U.S. exerted powerful economic & cultural influence that
threatened to dominate its neighbor to the north.
Both issues still affect Canada to the present day.
Europeans in Australia In the 1600's, the Europeans were the first to reach Australia.
In 1770, Captain JAmes Cook claimed Australia for Britain.
The first settlers. The first settlers reached Australia 50,000 years ago.
When white settlers arrived in Australia, the Aborigine population suffered distrously. A penal colony. During the 1700's, Britain sent convicts to its North American colonies.
Prisions in London & other cities were jammed with poor people arrested for crimes.
Britain made Australia into a penal colony.
A penal colony is a place to send people convicted of crimes. Into the Outback. In 1851, gold was found in eastern Australia.
As a result of the gold rush, it brought a population boom.
By the late 1800's, Australia had won a place in a growing world economy. Achieving self-government. In 1901, Britain helped the colonies unite into the independent Commonwealth of Australia.
Its Parliament had a Senate & House of Representatives.
Australia granted women the right to vote.
Was the first nation to inroduce the secret ballot. New Zeland Missionaries landed here in 1814.
Maori struggles. Were desended from seafaring people who reached New Zeland from Polynesia in 1200's.
Warlike people, detarmined to defend their land.
In 1840, Britain annexed New Zeland.
Self-governent. In 1907, New Zeland won independence, with their own parliament, prime minister, and elected legislature.
In 1893, New Zeland became the first nation to give suffrage to women.
Later, it was in the forefront of of other social reforms, passing laws to guarantee old-age pensions & minimum wage for all workers.