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Copy of Chapter 8: Four More Instructional Alternatives

Cooperative Learning, Discovery Learning, Constructivism, and Direct Instruction

Oytun Sozudogru

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Chapter 8: Four More Instructional Alternatives

Chapter 8
Four More Instructional
Cooperative Learning
Instructional procedures whereby learners work together in small groups and are rewarded for their collective accomplishments.
Usually teams of 4-6
Usually mixed gender, academic ability,
race, etc.
Collectively learn or master content that teacher already presented or teacher assigned as team project
Different Types of Cooperative Learning
STAD - Student Teams
Achievement Division
1. Simplest
2. Master content: Example vocabulary for quiz.
3. Procedure: Teacher presentation, team studies,
individual quizzes, determination of team scores,
team rewards/recognition.
TGT - Teams, Games, Tournaments
1. Same procedure as STAD except
instead of individual quizzes,
teams compete against one
TAI - Team-Assisted Individualization
and Team-Accelerated Instruction
1. Combines cooperative learning and individualized
2. Teams by mixed abilities, work on own, and complete
exercises, quizzes, tests, but team members serve as
tutors or help each other.
3. Different criteria used for rewards. Units completed,
final tests passed. etc.
CIRC - Cooperative Integrated Reading &
1. Example - teacher assigns identifying main
characters and main ideas in story such as
Romeo and Juliet.
2. Individuals read story and teams interact in
identifying characters and main idea.
Teachers or Good
Leaders will......
Believe in the importance of
working together for the common
Can get diverse learners to
Teacher is a competent
presenter, who can make independent
study assignments.
Can organize &
coordinate effectively
Able to identify and
help students who
are struggling.
Good Cooperative Learning
Preparing - good presentation,
team assignment, prepare
students by explaining
interpersonal & interactive roles
Delivering - Set team goals, prepare
students for work with team, team
assignments, quiz students,
recognize accomplishments.
Closing - Remind students of what was
learned, relate learning to past &
future learning, provide practical use
Jigsaw - Assignment or puzzle to solve
Example - learn about WWII in smaller
topics or puzzle pieces. Each group
researches a piece and then reports what
is learned.
Collect, organize,
manipulate, analyze
Teachers want
students to think
for themselves how
knowledge is
Teachers want
students to use
thinking skills.
Characteristics -
1. Teacher sets stage
2. Teacher rewards
exploration & independent
3. Students accept challenge
of finding things
4. Learners participation &
interaction is high
5. Learners at higher order
cognitive level
Good Discovery Learning
Preparing -
Determine general purpose
Determine lesson objectives, concepts, facts,
generalizations to be discovered
Collect resources/materials
Plan lesson
Ensure learners are ready for inductive method
Set induction - get attention
challenging or baffling situation
Questions that promote discovery
Be sure students know what they are doing
Monitor activity & thinking
Encourage organization, manipulation &
analyzing of data
Help students organize & phrase what
was learned
Provide opportunity to use
new knowledge
What type of learning is this?
Enabling students to
acquire knowledge
in ways that is most
readily understood
and usable

Constructivism learning is
active, authentic.

Constructivism learning
bridges new information
with knowledge students
already have.

Constructivism teachers use
scaffolding and learning
occurs through reflections
of a community of learners.

Discovery Learning
Direct Instruction
Teacher Centered - Teacher Dominated
Students learn academic
content or skills.
Teacher provides strong direction.
Orientation is very academic.
Concern is for achievement.
Student accountability.
Student behavior controlled.
Examples - Very Similar
with a few differences.

Basic Practice Model
Introduce Lesson - Develop
Lesson - Supervise Practice
Provide Feedback Correction -
Provide Independent Practice
Explicit Teaching
Review Previous Work - Introduce
Lesson - Develop Lesson - Check on
Understanding - Supervise Practice -
Provide Feedback/Correction - Provide
Independent Practice
Active Teaching
Review - Review, check homework-
Develop Lesson - Check on
Understanding - Provide
Independent Work in Class - Review
Now Let's Write!
Example of Discovery
Here is another example
of CIRC.
In this Chapter, we have learned about
four instructional alternatives. Which
of these were you most familiar with in
your education? Briefly write about one experience
you've had with that instructional alternative.

Which one do you feel would most
closely fit your learning style? Also
include a brief description of why.
Full transcript