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Transcript of Multiculturalism
In Australia, Canada, UK, South Korea and USA
Multiculturalism in Australia
United States of America
Multiculturalism in the USA
Despite a racist history, modern
Australia functions as quite a successful multicultural society
(Collins 2013; Ozdowski 2012).
The current Australian Government policy
embraces shared values and cultural traditions
, recognising the competitive edge that multiculturalism gives Australia in an increasingly global world (Australian Government Department of Social Services 2011).
Cultural diversity has boosted the economic performance
of Australia as well as its social and cultural capital (Nieuwenhuysen & Storer 2011; Ozdowski 2012).
(State & County QuickFacts 2015)
Advantages & disadvantages
Promotes economic development
through the increase in population of workers due to the higher birth rate amongst recent immigrants (Kotkin 2010).
of diversity through introduction to different cultures through cultural festivals (Volokh 2015).
Also creates friction
and has resulted in protests, riots and the Civil War (Harvard University Library 2010).
Library of Congress,
Ethnic and Multicultural history
America’s current Immigration policies
What is multiculturalism?
Multiculturalism is defined in different ways
in different parts of the globe. Most commonly, it is simply a demographic descriptor for a diverse population (Ozdowski 2012). Alternatively, it can be viewed as an ideal to be aspired to in which a cohesive society is enriched by its diversity of cultures (Ozdowski).
This presentation explores what multiculturalism looks like in various countries.
Credibility and Reliability of online sources of Information
To ensure a high standard of credible resources,
some key concepts by Metzger (2007) were followed, including, accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency and coverage or scope.
South Korea is an ethnically homogeneous country
and has just entered a stage of multiculturalism society.
From the middle 1990’s
, foreign labor, immigrant spouses, international students and even North Korean refugees have joined South Korean society. (Kim 2012)
The top nationalities of 3.14% of foreign residents include China (49.4%), USA (8.5%), Vietnam (7.6%), Japan (3.6%), Thailand (3.5%) Philippine (3.0%) and other countries (24.4%) (Korea Immigration Service 2014).
South Korea has one of the lowest birthrates
in the world. Therefore the inflow of migrant workers leads to economic development by providing labour for demanding job areas. (Foreign residents make up 3% of Korea population 2011)
I would recommend this YouTube Video for more information. This is a news interview on Arirang Issue (2012) with the first lawmaker who has a multicultural background.
At the time of independence
, the USA included French, Spanish, Dutch and Russian colonies as well as the 13 English colonies and their African slaves (History.com 2010).
Through the next 250 years
people from many cultures have immigrated to America attracted by its commitment to free speech and freedom of movement (Volokh 2015).
By the end of this decade
America is expected to be a ‘plurality nation’, that is no single racial or ethnic group will be a majority (Cooper 2012).
Some key points (Evidence Briefing, 2014) found that ethnic groups where moving towards a more British identity with the generations. There was little aggression towards white culture within ethnic groups however multiculturalism policy had little impact on the United Kingdom.
To find out further information on immigration policy and procedures
‘Foreign residents make up 3% of Korean population’ 2011,
, 16 December, viewed 28 April 2015, <http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2011/12/117_100923.html>.
Harvard University Library 2010, 'Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930',
Open Collections Program, Harvard University Library
, viewed 3 May 2015, <http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/timeline.html>.
Healey, J 2014, ‘The Real History of Multicultural Britain’,
The Social Historian
, 2 October, viewed 4 May 2015, <https://thesocialhistorian.wordpress.com/2014/10/02/the-real-history-of-multicultural-britain/>.
Hillman, K 2014
Mapping Social Cohesion, The Scanlon Foundation surveys
, viewed 15 May 2015, <http://www.amf.net.au/library/uploads/files/mapping-social-cohesion-national-report-2014(1).pdf>.
Kim, HM 2012, ‘Multicultural Policy for Social Integration – Case of Germany and Korea’,
Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergence with Art,
Humanities and Sociology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 65, viewed 29 April 2015, <http://www.sersc.org/journals/AJMAHS/vol2_no2_2012/2.pdf>.
Korea Immigration Service
2014, 2013 Immigration Statistics Annual Report, Viewed 29 April 2015, <http://www.immigration.go.kr/HP/COM/bbs_003/ListShowData.do?strNbodCd=noti0096&strWrtNo=126&strAnsNo=A&strOrgGbnCd=104000&strRtnURL=IMM_6050&strAllOrgYn=N&strThisPage=1&strFilePath=imm/>
Kotkin, J 2010, ‘The Changing Demographics of America’,
, viewed 3 May 2015, <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/40th-anniversary/the-changing-demographics-of-america-538284/?no-ist>.
Macquarie University 2012,
Australian Muslim Girls
[image], Macquarie University, viewed 15 May 2015, <http://mq.edu.au/pubstatic/custom/files/media/australian_muslim_girls.jpeg>.
Making multicultural policies effective
2014, Economic & Social Research Council, viewed 4 May 2015, <http://www.esrc.ac.uk/_images/Making%20multicultural%20policies%20effective_tcm8-32088.pdf>.
Martin, J 2013,
Immigration reform rally
[image], Fox News Latino, viewed 15 May 2015, <http://a57.foxnews.com/global.fncstatic.com/static/managed/img/fn-latino/news/660/371/Immigration%20Reform%20Rally%20bt.jpg?ve=1&tl=1>.
Meola, M 2004, 'Chucking the Checklist: A Contextual Approach to Teaching Undergraduates Web-Site Evaluation', Portal: Libraries And The Academy, 4, 3, pp. 331-344, ERIC,
, viewed 15 May 2015.
Metzger, M 2007, 'Making sense of credibility on the web: models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research',
Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology
, vol. 58, no. 13, pp.2078-2091
Multiculturalism in the United Kingdom
Multiculturalism in Canada
Multiculturalism in South Korea
The United Kingdom has been built on multiculturalism for centuries
beginning in with William the ‘Conqueror’ in 1066 bringing a number of Norman aristocrats (Healey 2014).
The Flemish came over in the middle ages
along with French Protestants in 1685. In the 18th century London had a black population of between 1-2%.
In modern times
post the 2nd world war 1948 with
the first significant immigrants arriving from Jamaica
. Indian, Bangladesh and Pakistan immigrants where most popular in the 50’s and 60’s. In the 1970’s Asian Ugandan refugees arrived. In the 90’s Somali where most popular, with recent years being eastern European. (British Council 2015).
(Index Mundi 2014)
The benefits of multiculturalism is a debated issue
with Prime Minister David Cameron arguing the multiculturalism had failed (BBC News 2011).
Note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify with more than one ethnic origin (The World Factbook 2015)
Advantages & disadvantages
Advocates a sense of belonging and community whilst still respecting all cultural heritages (Canadian Multiculturalism: An Inclusive Citizenship 2012).
Can be viewed as a concept designed to tolerate immigrants rather than as an official policy of celebrating diversity (Alhagbra 2013).
A calendar of multicultural events in Canada http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1323803726195
A video about what cultural diversity means to Canadians:
(Korea Immigration Service, 2014)
Around the world, multiculturalism is
defined in different ways. Cultural diversity is almost non-existent in South Korea, and like the USA, the term is merely a demographic descriptor. In the UK, it is perhaps an ideal that has been aspired too, albeit unsuccessfully. In Canada and Australia however, cultural diversity is an appreciated ideal, seen as something that enriches the nation. Social cohesion is fostered through policy and programs, with national values and goals.
Canada was built within a multicultural society
by the Aboriginal, French and British (Dewing 2013). At the time of the confederation, Canada’s population was 60% British and 30% French (Dewing 2013). Immigrants from other European countries were granted entry at the twentieth century mark (Dewing 2013).
In the 1970’s Canada took a step forward in promoting cultural diversity
, becoming the first country to introduce a multiculturalism policy. (Canadian Multiculturalism: An Inclusive Citizenship 2012).
Advantages & Disadvantages
Multiculturalism promotes civic values
of justice and equal opportunity in Australia (Smits 2011).
Multiculturalism has been criticised
for causing social fragmentation (Smits 2011; Ozdowski 2012).
Current Australian Government Multicultural Policy
(Department of Social Services 2012)
Australian Multicultural Foundation
(Australian Multicultural Foundation n.d.)
The Scanlon Foundation's 2014 Mapping Social Cohesion Report
The 13 Colonies
2010, History.com, viewed 4 May 2015, <http://www.history.com/topics/thirteen-colonies>.
Alghbra, O 2013 ‘Has Multiculturalism in Canada lost its way?’
, 15 August, viewed 2 May 2015, <http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/omar-alghabra/canada-multiculturalism_b_3761869.html>.
Arirang Issue 2012, Multicultural support policies in Korea, 13 June, Viewed 28 April 2015, < https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=v5xziIVI9aY>
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012, Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013, cat. no. 2071.0, ABS, viewed 13 May 2015, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/lookup/2071.0main+features902012-2013>.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012, 2011 Census data shows more than 300 ancestries reported in Australia, cat. no. n/a, ABS, viewed 13 May 2015, <http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/home/CO-62>.
Australian Multicultural Foundation n.d.
Australian Multicultural Foundation
, viewed 12 May 2015, <http://www.amf.net.au>.
2015, Government of Canada, viewed 8 May 2015, <http://www.pch.gc.ca/eng/1323803726195>.
Canadian Multiculturalism: An Inclusive Citizenship
2012, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, viewed 29 April 2015, <http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/multiculturalism/citizenship.asp>.
Collins, J. 2013. Multiculturalism and Immigrant Integration in Australia.
Canadian Ethnic Studies
, vol.45, no. 3, pp. 133-149.
Cooper, M 2012, ‘Census Officials, Citing Increasing Diversity, Say U.S. Will Be a ‘Plurality Nation’’,
The New York Times
, 12 December, viewed 3 May 2015, <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/13/us/us-will-have-no-ethnic-majority-census-finds.html?_r=1>.
Croome, C 2002, Notting Hill Carnival 2002 [image], Wikimedia Commons, viewed 15 May 2015, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Notting_Hill_Carnival_2002_large.jpg
Dewing, M 2013,
, Library of Parliament, viewed 4 May 2015, <http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2009-20-e.pdf>.
2015, British Council, viewed 4 May 2015, <https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/word-street/multicultural-britain>
‘Multicultural Korea’ 2012 [image], Google Images, International Spouses of Koreans Association (ISKA), viewed 3 May 2015, <https://www.google.com.au/search?as_st=y&tbm=isch&hl=en&as_q=multicultural+families+in+korea&as_epq=&as_oq=&as_eq=&cr=&as_sitesearch=&safe=images&tbs=sur:fc#imgrc=U8Q5VLA7paV-DM%253A%3BI3afELVOpAesLM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.iskaonline.com%252Fimages%252FMULTICULTURAL.jpg%253F368%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.iskaonline.com%252F%3B245%3B120>.
‘Multiculturalism: What does in mean?’ 2011,
, 7 February, viewed 4 May 2015, <http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-12381027>.
Nieuwenhuysen, J. & Storer, D. 2011.
The economic advantages of cultural diversity in Australia
, Community Relations Commission - NSW Government, viewed 3 May 2015 <http://www.crc.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/17479/The_economic_advantages_of_cultural_diversity_in_Australia.pdf>.
Ozdowski, S 2012, ‘Australian Multiculturalism: the roots of its success’,
University of Western Sydney
, viewed 10 May 2015,
he People of Australia – Australia's Multicultural Policy
2011, Department of Social Services, viewed 28 April 2015, <https://www.dss.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/12_2013/people-of-australia-multicultural-policy-booklet_print.pdf>.
Smits, K. 2011. Justifying Multiculturalism: Social Justice, Diversity and National Identity in Australia and New Zealand.
Australian Journal Of Political Science
, vol.45, no.3, pp. 87-103.
State & County QuickFacts
2015, United States Census Bureau, viewed 27 April 2015, <http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html>.
‘Top 10 nationalities granted work-related visas’ 2014 [Graph],
Immigration Statistics - October to December 2014
, Gov.uk, viewed 7 May 2015, <https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/immigration-statistics-october-to-december-2014/immigration-statistics-october-to-december-2014>.
United Kingdom Ethnic Groups
2014, Index Mundi, viewed 7 May 2015,
Virtual Citizenship Resource Centre 2013,
Canadian Citizenship, Cultural Diversity and Multiculturalism
, 20 September, viewed 8 May 2015, <https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=Cxg6IS2RKcA>.
Visa and Immigration
2015, Gov.uk, viewed 7 May 2015, <https://www.gov.uk/browse/visas-immigration>.
Volokh, E. 2015, ‘The American tradition of multiculturalism’,
The Washington Post
, 7 January, viewed 3 May 2015, <http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2015/01/27/the-american-tradition-of-multiculturalism/>.
The World Factbook
2015, Central Intelligence Agency, viewed 2 May 2015, <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html>.
welcomepeterborough.ca 2010, Canada Day 40 [image], welcomepeterborough.ca, viewed 15 May, 2015, <http://www.welcomepeterborough.ca/Assets/Welcome+Peterborough+Assets/Images/NCC/Canada+Day+40.jpg>.
White House Photographer 1998, Staff of President Clinton's One America Initiative, the Initiative on Race [image], Wikimedia Commons, viewed 15 May 2015, <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:President_Clinton%27s_Initiative_on_Race.jpg>.
Young-joon, A 2011, Korea 30 [image], Jakarta Post, viewed 15 May 2015, http://<www.thejakartapost.com/files/images2/korea_30.jpg>.
To carry this out, a basic checklist was formed (Metzger 2007).
1. Does the article/page reference other credible sources?
2. Is the website a well-known source of reliable information?
3. Who is the author of the article and website and what are their credentials?
4. What is the purpose of the site?
5. Is the information up to date?
Latino Americans (Martin 2013)
Canadian citizens celebrate Canada Day (welcomepeterborough.ca 2010)
Notting Hill Carnival (Croome 2002)
South Korean employees from Everland amusement park wearing Halloween costumes (Young-joon 2011)
Australian Muslim girls
(Macquarie University 2012)
(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012)
Over 300 ancestries are represented
in Australia. (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). The following are the top twelve.
(Arirang Issue 2012)
* May not sum due to some identifying as more than one ethnicity.
(Virtual Citizenship Resource Centre 2013)
Further techniques used included
Meola's (2004) principles of 'promoting peer and editorially reviewed resources, comparison, and corroboration'.
Where possible peer reviewed resources from online databases and published government and tertiary institution resources were used.
Various resources were analysed for similarities and differences in information, or controversial information and bias.
* May not sum due to some identifying as more than one ethnicity.
(International Spouses of Koreans Association 2012)